Open Access Short communication

Detection of Dichlorvos Residue in Cowpea Grains, Six Months after Application Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography

S. R. Yusuf, S. H. Lawan, B. S. Wudil, H. Sule

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/37992

In Kano State Nigeria, especially at the famous Dawanau grains market, dichlorvos (DDVP: 2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate), which is a synthetic organophosphate insecticide is being widely used against stored insect pests of cowpea grains by traders and merchants alike. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) screening using commercially available brand of such an organophosphate insecticide was carried out in a Chemistry Laboratory at Bayero University Kano in 2014. This was aimed at determining the presence or absence of the insecticide in the treated and untreated grains of cowpea before, day one and six months after application. The analysis was carried out using an Agilent 1260 Quadpump HPLC, equipped with diode array detector, autosampler and thermostetted column compartment. The result was processed using Agilent Chemstation software. Dichlorvos detection was achieved at 214 nm, while the overlaid chromatograms suggested the presence of DDVP: 2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate in the test sample relative to the chromatogram of the standard commercial sample at a retention time of 2.163 and 2.283 minutes, respectively. The peak of the target compound was visibly not present in the control chromatogram at the stated retention time. In conclusion, detection of dichlorvos in grains six months after application highlights among others, the dangers and/or disadvantages associated with the use of the chemicals for the protection of stored cowpea grains against insect pests especially by the personnel lacking requisite knowledge on the appropriate ways of handling/application of such synthetic products for both human and environmental safety.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer on the Soil Chemical Properties of the Rhizosphere in Kiambu County, Kenya

Kariithi Tabitha, Thagana Wilson, P. Gweyi-Onyango Joseph

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/37081

The experiment was carried out at Kenyatta university farm using 2×3×3 factorial plan in a randomized complete block design. The experiment was carried out for two seasons. Pre cropping soil analsyis was carried out before and after the study to assess soil pH, macro and micro nutrients in the soil. Pre cropping analyses showed that the study site soil pH was 5.2, slightly acidic, Calcium amount was 1.7 me%, nitrogen was 0.07% and phosphorous was 6 ppm, iron recorded 59.3 ppm and magnesium 0.73 me%. The soil was low in macro and micro nutrients. The organic quail manure used was also analysed and showed that it was high in phosphorus that recorded 9.748 ppm, magnesium was 0.29%, calcium of 3.2 me%, total nitrogen was 4.5% and Zn was 9.00 ppm and pH was 6.4. Two Amaranth species (A. cruentus and A. tricolor) were used in the investigation. To determine significant differences among treatments, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was done using SAS computer software and least significant difference (LSD) at 5% was used for mean separation. Chemical properties of the soil were significantly (P≤0.05) influenced during the second season. The result after the experiment showed that macro nutrients increased except for phosphorus. Nitrogen increased in the soil from 0.07% to 2.17%, potassium from 0.9% to 1.34%, the pH increased from 5.2 to 6.2, iron increased from 59.3 ppm to 167 ppm when 250 kg/ha of NPK + 8.45 t/ha, at 500 kg/h+16.9t/h calcium increased from 1.7 to 3.97 me% and manganese from 0.16 me% to 2.61 me%. Sole NPK which is inorganic fertilizer slightly increased magnesium from 0.73 me% to 1.49 me% in the first season to 1.52 me% in the second season, manganese was raised from 0.16 me% to 0.37 me% in the first season and to 0.46m% in the second season. Intergration of poultly manure and NPK was more effective in increasing soil nutrients than sole application of fertilizer materials.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological Variation and Yield Performance of Photo-insensitive Lablab bean [Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet] Genotypes under Sylhet Region

T. Akter, M. S. Islam, D. Deb Nath, J. Ferdousi, M. Rob

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/38783

An experiment was conducted during August 2013 to February 2014 at the experimental field of the Sylhet Agricultural University (SAU), Sylhet to study the morphological variability, yield and yield contributing characteristics among the five lablab bean genotypes viz., SB003, BP003, IPSA Sheem-2, SB008 and SB010. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The genotypes SB003, IPSA Sheem-2 and SB008 had reddish brown seed coat color while it was black in SB010 and reddish color in the genotype BP003. Among the genotypes 100 dry seed weight was ranged from 35.50 g (IPSA Sheem-2) to 41.30 g (SB003). Variation in yield and yield contributing characteristics were found among five lablab bean genotypes. The genotype SB010 produced the maximum number of pods plant-1 (562.3) followed by SB008 (381.3). A similar trend was also noticed in pod yield plant-1 among the genotypes. The highest pod yield was recorded in the genotype SB010 (20.46 ton ha-1) while it was the lowest in IPSA Sheem-2 (6.26 ton ha-1). For seed production potentiality, the genotype SB010 produced the highest amount of seed plant-1 (451.67 g) since it produced the maximum number of dry pods plant-1 (228.67). Seed yield ha-1 varied from 1.0 ton to 3.0 tons. However, pod and seed yield ha-1 indicating bright scope to popularize lablab bean production in the Sylhet region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Willingness to Pay for Organic Vegetable in Ado-Ekiti Metropolis, Ekiti State, Nigeria

R. S. Owoeye, S. O. W. Toluwase, A. B. Sekumade

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/38250

This study was conducted to assess willingness to pay for organic vegetables in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to collect data from 60 respondents that were purposively selected from 3 organizations within the State i.e. Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti and Ekiti State Government Secretariat, Ado-Ekiti. Descriptive statistics and Tobit regression model were used to analyze the collected data. Result of data analysis showed that 95% of the respondents had prior knowledge of organic vegetables. Also, 93.3% of the respondents agreed that organic vegetable was healthier than the conventional ones. The result also showed that out of the six organic vegetables the respondents were willing to pay for, cucumber recorded the highest premium (₦49.33). The result from the tobit regression model showed that household size, educational level and monthly income were statistically significant at 5%, 1% and 1% respectively, implying that they were the variables influencing willingness to pay for organic vegetables in the study area. Independent variables with positive signs i.e. household size and awareness implied that the higher these variables, the more the willingness to pay for organic vegetables. It is therefore recommended that the three tiers of government, including the private sector, should mount serious awareness campaigns to sensitize Nigerian populace on numerous benefits of organic farming especially on health, finance and environment. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of NPK Blended Fertiliser on Soil Chemical Properties under Acidic Conditions of Western Kenya on Finger Millet Crop

Dennis Simiyu Wamalwa

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/38843

Soil acidity is a serious problem that affects crop productivity in Western Kenya region. The county governments of Kakamega, Bungoma, Vihiga, Busia and Trans-Nzoia are promoting the application of NPK blended fertilizer to enhance the soil acidity. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. (Gaertn) is one of the principal cereal crops in Kenya and can grow in stress conditions much better than other cereal crops, and it is for this reason that it is currently being popularized in efforts to address food security. NPK blended fertilizer, Commonly known as ‘Mavuno Fertilizer’ to locals contains the combination of macronutrients and micronutrients (10%N, 26%P2O5, 10%K2O, 4%S, 8%CaO, 4%MgO and traces of B, Zn, Mo, Cu and Mn) that makes it unique to ameliorate this acidic soil conditions. The study was conducted at the crop and livestock research field at Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO) Kakamega station. The design was Randomized Complete Block Design, with 0,25,50,75,100 kg application rates per acre of NPK blended fertilizer as the treatments applied in two equal split application. The application of NPK mixed fertilizer reduced the amount of aluminium in the soil consistently for both seasons with the highest reduction under the highest rate while the soil pH, soil calcium and soil magnesium significantly increased linearly with increasing fertilizer rates. The control had no significant influence on the soil pH compared to the treated plots as compared to the analytical results of the soil pH of 5.71-5.73 before planting. The soil aluminium content drastically reduced from 2.10 cmol/kg in control to 1.4 cmol/kg in the 100 kg/acre in both rain seasons under the local variety Gulu-E with slight differences from P-224. The highest application rate of 100 kg/acre significantly increased the soil calcium contents to 3.4% and 3.3% during the short and long rainy seasons respectively. The NPK blended fertilizer application from any rate can positively ameliorate the soils in western Kenya by reducing the acidity.