Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritive Contents of Cakes Enriched with Almonds Powder of Terminalia catappa of Côte d’Ivoire

Douati Togba Etienne, Mahan Makado Romuald, Konan N’Guessan Ysidor, Sidibe Daouda, Coulibaly Adama, Biego Godi Henri Marius

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/36697

Aims: To assess the nutrients of cakes enriched with the almonds powders of Terminalia catappa cultivated in Côte d’Ivoire and their daily contributions in adult people’s diet.

Study Design: Six groups of cakes, 5 enriched with almonds powders from Terminalia catappa (cake1, cake2, cake3, cake4 and cake5) and 1 non-enriched (control) were obtained using the composite central plane and prepared. Then, their nutrient composition was determined.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food Sciences, Biochemistry department of Biosciences Unit, Félix Houphouet-Boigny University, between January and June 2017.

Methodology: The analysis of the 6 cakes consisted of the determination of their nutritive content (moisture content, protein, lipids, total sugars, reducing sugars, carbohydrates, fiber and ash) and phenolic compounds (polyphenols and flavonoids). Also their energy value and daily intake were estimated.

Results: The analysis of the results indicates that the protein contents are between 9.13 ± 0.02 and 10.37 ± 0.02 g / 100 g, those of the lipids vary between 24.03 ± 0.01 - 26.23 ± 0.01 g / 100 g. when the ash fluctuates between 6.08 ± 0.02 and 8.03 ± 0.03 g / 100 g. The moisture levels revealed ranged between 6.20 ± 0.01 and 7.91 ± 0.02 g / 100 g. The total sugars show contents between 0.01 ± 0.01 and 0.051 ± 0.01 g / 100 g. However, the reducing sugars have a constant content (0.01 g / 100 g). As for the fibres, they have contents which vary between 4.88 ± 0.02 and 5.08 ± 0.01 g / 100 g. Total carbohydrates have levels ranging from 55.16 ± 0.07 to 55.32 ± 0.21 g / 100 g. The energy values ​​indicate contents of 473.43 ± 0.02 and 498.83 ± 0.01 Kcal. The total polyphenols have levels ranging from 280 ± 0.01 to 352.8 ± 0.01 mg EAG / 100 g, whereas the total flavonoids have levels between 10 ± 0.01 and 15 ± 0.01 mg EQ / 100 g. The oxalate levels revealed ranged between 4.5±0.01 and 5.40 ±0.01 mg / 100 g Ms, whereas the phytate have levels ranging between 3.8±0.01 and 4±0.01 mg / 100 g Ms.

Conclusion: The valorisation of cakes enriched with almond powders from T. catappa, particularly cake 4, could help to combat malnutrition and increase the economic resources of populations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Improving Agricultural Water Productivity with Alternate Furrow Irrigation in Semi-Arid Conditions of Northern Ethiopia

Teferi Gebremedhin

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/35328

The major production constraint in arid and semi-arid areas is scarcity of irrigation water. Thus, improving the management of irrigation water is very crucial to reduce water losses and thereby enhance water use efficiency. Hence, this research was conducted to evaluate the effect of Alternate Furrow Irrigation (AFI) on yield, water use efficiency and economic return of Onion at Hamedo irrigation scheme as compared to Conventional Furrow Irrigation (CFI), at different levels of water application (100, 80 and 60% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc)). Results indicated that AFI maintained almost similar bulb yield but with up to 50% reduction in irrigation amount when compared to CFI. The maximum marketable bulb yield obtained at 100% ETc with CFI was 22.9 ton/ha which is not statistically significant with that of obtained under AFI (20.8 ton/ha). However, the WUE of onion under AFI at 100% ETc was higher (7.12 kg/m3) than that of CFI at 100% ETc (3.9 kg/m3). Moreover, the amount of water saved by AFI, at both levels of water (80 and 60% ETc), was also much higher (293.8 - 413.1mm) than even that of 60% ETc under CFI (238.4mm). Overall, under limited water resources, AFI can reduce the costs associated with labor and pumping to the field. Therefore, it can be recommended that AFI is a practical technique to improve agricultural water productivity for irrigated crops in the study area and other similar agro ecologies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Fertilizer on the Growth of Local Aromatic Rice Varieties

Kamrun Nahar Mousomi, Md. Abul Kashem, Mohammad Noor Hossain Miah, Imtiaz Miah

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/37106

A pot experiment was conducted at the experimental net house of the Department of Soil Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet, Bangladesh to observe the effect of fertilizers on growth of local aromatic rice varieties during the aman (summer) season of 2015. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Five aromatic rice varieties (Kalizira: V1, Muktasail: V2, Nagrasail: V3, Maloti: V4 and Chinigura: V5) and four levels of fertilizer (Recommended dose: F1 i.e. 45-10-20-10-0.5 kg ha-1 of N-P-K-S-Zn, 2/3rd of recommended dose: F2, 1/3rd of recommended dose: F3, and Control: F4) were used. All fertilizers were applied as basal during final pot preparation while urea was applied in two equal splits. With few exceptions, all of the growth characters of the aromatic rice varieties were significantly affected due to the application of different fertilizer doses. The longest plant (124.5 cm) at harvest was found in Muktasail with recommended dose of fertilizers whereas the shortest plant (91.40 cm) was noted in Kalizira variety in control treatment. Similarly, recommended dose of fertilizers gave the highest tillers number hill-1 (25.00) in Kalizira at and the lowest number of tillers hill-1 (8.67) was noticed in Chinigura variety at control treatment. The highest grain yield was recorded in Nagrasail variety (65.33 g pot-1) followed by Kalizira (65.26 g pot-1) with recommended dose of fertilizers while the lowest yield (24.31 g pot-1) was observed in Maloti in control treatment. The overall results indicated that recommended dose of fertilizers influenced the growth characters of aromatic rice varieties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Different Rice Hybrids on Morphological Traits and Quality Attributes in Adaptability Yield Trial

M. Riaz, M. Akther, T. Latif, M. Iqbal, A. Raza, N. Shahzadi

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/32151

Twelve rice hybrids of different companies were evaluated for yield, yield components and quality attributes in at Rice Research Institute Kala shah kaku along with KSK-133 and KSK-434 as check varieties in RCBD. All the hybrids were found significantly different from each other in all aspects of morphological and quality attributes. The traits under study were maturity days, plant height (cm), no. of productive tillers, panicle length (cm), no. of grains / panicle, 1000 grain weight (gram) and paddy yield (t/ha). Quality attributes include cooked grain length, average grain length, elongation ratio, broken rice %, total milled rice % and head rice recovery%. PRIDE-1(10.2 t/ha) and DAGHA (9.7 t/ha) were found to be significantly higher in yield. On the other side paddy yield of hybrid HEV-188(5.52 t/ha) remained at the bottom. The highest value of no. of productive tillers were recorded in PRIDE-1, panical length was higher in LP-3. The no. of grains /panicle was higher in AKP-907 and 1000 grain weight was estimated maximum in Y-26, which were significantly higher relative to the checks. In case of milling recovery, WINNER-05 was found to be best hybrid with head rice recovery (68.5%) and in cooking quality the best value estimated of elongation ratio was of DAGHA (1.7). PRIDE-1 and DAGHA can be used for seed production. The seed of the following hybrids can be multiplied and produced in Sindh for cultivation.

Open Access Review Article

Effective Rainfall Calculation Methods for Field Crops: An Overview, Analysis and New Formulation

M. H. Ali, S. Mubarak

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/36812

Effective precipitation is important in irrigation scheduling decisions, is used to design new irrigation systems, and is a guiding factor for planning crop production practices. The methods for calculating effective rainfall for dry-land and wet-land crops were overviewed, analyzed and summarized in this paper. It is evident that the calculation methods have certain limitations, and also have merits and demerits. Performance of different methods was evaluated for effective rainfall of rice and deviations of results were found. As the methods are mostly empirical, such variation is expected other than the situation where they are developed/formulated. Process based formulation, particularly which considered crop ET, may suit under diverse situations. Under the current condition, Indian-1 and Japanese method estimated closer value, but may not yield better result under other conditions. The new formulation, which is based on the actual water expense, gave better/perfect estimation. New formulations pertinent to different practical/field situations are suggested, which will be useful for calculation of effective rainfall under different field and climatic conditions.