Open Access Short communication

Development of a Mechanical Trichoderma harzianum Soil Injector for Banana (Musa acuminate)

Roger C. Montepio, Ruel F. Tuyogon, Ryan M. Abenoja

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/36964

Trichoderma harzianum is an antagonistic fungus and is widely recognized as a potential biological control agent against several soil-borne plant pathogens. Traditionally it was applied using basal or digging method.  These are laborious, time consuming and low application accuracy. To improve these conditions, a mechanical soil injector was developed and evaluated. The fabricated prototype is 3 ft long and has a 1-inch diameter stainless injector. It weighs approximately 17 kilograms including the 16-liters backpack sprayer. The factor affecting the soil injection capacity was the pump power requirement. The volume of solution dispenses by the soil injector and field capacity was determined. The prototype was compared to digging and basal application method. Results showed that the prototype’s average solution discharge ranges from 10-34 mL/sec having a field capacity of 424-890 plants/hour. Compared with the existing application method, it can deliver Trichoderma harzianum five times faster and has a marginal benefit cost ratio (MBCR) of 1.30.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Quality of Juice Prepared from African Bush Mango (Irvingia garbonensis Var. garbonesis) Fruit Pulp

P. I. Akubor

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/36476

Aim: The study investigated the quality of juice prepared from African bush mango fruit pulp.

Study Design: The study was carried out in three replications and the data were analyzed using analysis of variance in completely randomized design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at University of Nigeria Nsukka in 2014.

Methodology: African bush mango pulp was blended with hot water at 1:5 dilution and the slurry was filtered through double folded muslin cloth. The juice was ameliorated with 8% (w/v) sucrose and then pasteurized at 65°C for 30 min. The juice was treated with 0.1% (w/v) sodium benzoate. The pulp and the treated juice were analyzed for the chemical composition, mineral and phytochemical contents. The sensory properties of the untreated and the sodium benzoate treated juices were determined.

Results: The pH of the treated juice and pulp were 4.0 and 4.8, respectively. The juice contained 10°brix soluble solids while that of the pulp was 8°brix. The protein contents decreased from 4.8% in the pulp to 1.1% in the juice. Similarly, the carbohydrate contents decreased from 80.8% in the pulp to 7.72% in the juice. The juice contained lower energy content (41.58 Kcal/100 ml) than the pulp (355 Kcal/100 g). The vitamin C contents of the pulp and juice were 78 mg/100 g and 67 mg/100 ml, respectively. The Mg, Fe and Zn contents of the pulp were 104, 2.5 and 3.0 mg/100 g, respectively while the Mg, Fe and Z contents of the juice were 97, 1.3 and 1.9 mg/100 mg, respectively. The juice contained 272 mg/100 ml phenols, 1056 ug carotenoids, 395 mg/100 ml flavonoids and 43. 4 mg/100 ml anthocyanins. These phytochemicals were higher in the pulp than in the juice. The African bush mango juice and the sodium benzoate treated juice were not significantly different (p>0.05) in all the sensory properties evaluated. The juices were generally accepted by the panelists.

Conclusion:  Accepted juice could be prepared from African bush fruit at 1:5 pulp to water dilution with 8% (w/v) sucrose addition. The juice was rich in vitamin C, essential minerals and phytochemicals.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Epidemiological Status of Prevailing Diseases in Livestock Population of District Quetta, Pakistan

Kamran Baseer Achakzai, Muhammad Abbas Shah

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/36845

Background: Livestock population is affected by various infectious and non-infectious diseases which can lead to huge economic losses to the farmers in terms of reduced growth, production performance and mortality.

Aims: To investigate the prevalence of infectious and non-infectious diseases of livestock in Quetta, the northwestern district of Balochistan province of Pakistan.

Place and Duration of the Study: Study was conducted in District Office of Livestock & Dairy Development Department Quetta between February and March, 2017.

Methodology: Clinical cases reported at fifteen different veterinary hospitals and dispensaries of District Quetta from January 2015 to December 2016 was used for this study. Diagnosis of disease was made on the basis of owner’s statement, general examination, clinical signs, postmortem findings and/or laboratory results which were extracted from the clinic record books. Data was analyzed to determine prevalence disease in livestock population with respect to specie and season.

Results: Diagnosed diseases were grouped into six major categories i.e. endo-parasitic, ecto-parasitic infestations, metabolic, systemic, non-contagious and infectious/other diseases. The statistical analysis of the pooled data for two years shows that the parasitic infestation was the main problem (70%) followed by infectious / other and non-contagious diseases (12% each), systemic and metabolic diseases (3% each). A significant effect (P<0.05) of livestock species was found on the incidence of lung worm, wireworm, liver fluke, mange and tick infestation. Statistically significant (P<0.05) effect of livestock species was also noticed on the incidence of non-contagious, metabolic, systemic and infectious diseases as well.

Conclusions: This study provides valuable insight to design and implement priority based research on specific diseases. Further studies are needed to see the effect of these diseases on economics of farms, wholesomeness of available livestock and their by-products. Various diseases including parasitic infestation may have their zoonotic effects accompanied with their detrimental effects on animal productivity. Zoonotic nature of these diseases makes it vital to investigate the species of parasites, communicable to human being and devise strategies to counter them.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Snail Farming from Selected Villages in the Mount Cameroon Range, South West Region of Cameroon

Njoh Roland Ndah, Celestine Fonyikeh-Bomboh Lucha, Eugene Loh Chia, Egbe Enow Andrew, Tata Yengo, Donald Ngwa Anye

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/35113

This study examined the role of snail farming (Heliculture) as a potential tool for conservation and livelihood development in forest dependent communities around the Mount Cameroon National Park (MCNP). The villages selected for this study were Mapanja, Bonjongo, Mokunda and Boana based on their proximity to forest resources. Since it was a pilot study, farmers were selected based on their prior knowledge on snail farming or were currently farming snails locally. A total of 38 questionnaires were distributed to snail farmers of which were 18 males and 20 females in the four villages and we recorded a hundred percent respondents. The questionnaires were based on forest related activities such as collection of non timber forest products, agricultural practices and collection of woody products. Observations, monitoring and progressive evaluations were made overtime on some behavioural changes (frequency to the forest for hunting, harvesting of forest products and snail meat consumption). Observations were made on the number of snails stocked, number of dead snails, number of eggs, and number of baby snails. The data were entered into excel and analyzed descriptively.  We noticed that after the establishment of snail farms in these communities overtime, individuals covered less distances into the forest 2hrs/week in Mapanja, and less than 1hr/week in Bonjongo, Mukunda and Boana. The number of traps set reduced from 80% in Mapanja and Mokunda to less than 20% and 60% in Bonjongo and Boana to less than 20%. It was noticed that snail meat consumption increased after snails farms were established, Mapanja 29%, Bonjongo 37.5%, Mokunda 33.3% and Boana 29.2% when compared with other protein sources. It was concluded that if proper management of the snail farms around the MCNP can provide a better alternative of bush meat hunting, provide income and reduced human influence on the forest.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sowing Methods, Seed Rate and Variety on Yield and Seed Quality of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and Its Implication on Returns in Sudan Savanna of Nigeria

Y. N. Katanga, O. Danmaigoro, Y. Buba

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/29589

An experiment to determine the effect of sowing method, seed rate and variety on the yield and seed quality of sesame (Sesamum indicum L) and its implication on returns was conducted at Kano and Dutse, in the sudan ecological zone of Nigeria during 2009 rainy season. The treatments evaluated consisted of three sowing methods (broadcasting, dibbling and drilling), four seed rate (2.5/ha, 5.0/ha, 7.5/ha and 10.0/ha Kg-1) and two varieties (Ex-Sudan and E8). The  result shows that, 1000-seed weight was significantly affected by the treatments at both locations where dibbling method produced heavier seed weight, seed rate of 2.5 kg/ha resulted in more seed per plant while 5.0 kg/ha of seed produced significantly more yield per hectare. Proximate analysis of the seeds was carried out. Crude protein and oil content of the seed were not significantly affected by the sowing method and variety. It is therefore recommended that, adopting drilling method of planting with the seed rate of 5.0 kg/ha would increase the yield per unit that could increase the returns accrued to the sesame growers.