Open Access Case study

An Analysis of Vegetables and Fruits Production Scenario in Nepal

Gobinda Pandey, Samsher Basnet, Bibek Pant, Kamal Bhattarai, Binod Gyawali, Anand Tiwari

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/36442

Agriculture contributes on an average one third to total Gross Domestic Product. It is the major source of employment for the majority of people in Nepal. Productivity of vegetables is in increasing trends after 1991/92 up to 2015/16 but fruits productivity is in decreasing trend after 2009/10. Summer fruits share above 62% of total fruit area and production while terai region share more than third fourth of total summer fruits both in area and production. Mango and banana are the most dominant summer fruits in terms of area and production. Citrus fruit share about 22% of total fruit area and production while hilly region is dominant in terms of citrus growing area and production. Mandarin types of citrus occupy around two third of total citrus growing area and production. Winter fruits share 15.5% and 13% of total fruit area and production respectively. Hills and mountain region share 99.2% of total winter fruits production. More than half of the total winter fruits area and production is share by apple and pear.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimizing Growth, Seed Yield and Quality of Soybean (Glycine max L.) Plant Using Growth Substances

M. M. M. Abd El-Aal, Rania S. M. Eid

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/36034

Aims: It is become necessary to reduce the gap between the demand and supply of edible oil and protein. So, the aim of the present investigation is to study the effect of foliar application with humic acid, salicylic acid and paclobutrazol on some morphological, anatomical and seed yield characteristics, as well as on some biochemical constituents of soybean (Glycine max L.) seed for maximizing its growth, yield and nutritional value.

Methodology: A 2 year field trial was carried out during 2015 and 2016 at the Faculty of Agriculture Experiment Station, Benha University, Egypt . Soybean (Glycine max L.) cv. Giza 111 seeds were sown into plots (each plot unit about 3.5 m long and 3.0 m wide) in clay loam soil. A total of six treatments of humic acid, salyclic acid, and paclobutrazol were foliarly applied: humic acid at 2.5 and 5.0 gl-1, salicylic acid at 50 and 100 mgl-1, paclobutrazol at 10 and 20 mgl-1 and Control in a 3 randomized complete blocks.

Results: All rates of humic acid, salicylic acid and paclobutrazol had a significant effect on soybean morphological characters during the 2 years. The treatment set of 10 mgl-1 paclobutrazol, 5 gl-1 humic acid, and 100 mgl-1 salicylic acid resulted in relatively higher means for most vegetative growth characters compared to both the other 3 and the Control treatments. Despite variations among the 6 rates effects, all enhanced chlorophyll and carotenoids contents. This positive response extended to include the contents of soybean shoot endogenous phytohormones.  Soybean yield components and yield were significantly improved due to applying these 3 growth substances using these current rates, this in addition to their positive effect on N P K content, crude protein, total carbohydrates and percentage total lipids in soybean seed yield.  Under the conditions of this trial, either of 10 mgl-1 paclobutrazol, 5 gl-1 humic acid, or 100 mgl-1 salicylic acid proved useful to improve soybean growth and yield, yet more further research deem necessary to include more expanded set of rates to be assessed under other perspectives.

Open Access Original Research Article

Plant Density Tolerance of 23 Inbred Lines of Maize (Zea mays L.) and Their 69 Testcrosses

A. M. M. Al-Naggar, R. Shabana, M. S. Hassanein, T. A. Elewa, A. S. M. Younis, A. M. A. Metwally

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/36053

Maximum yield per unit area may be obtained by growing maize hybrids that can withstand high plant density. Maize genotypes differ in plant density tolerance (PDT). The objectives of the present investigation were to identify the density tolerant genotypes, to estimate the superiority of tolerant (T) over sensitive (S) inbreds and testcrosses and to identify the trait(s) of strongest association with PDT. Ninety-six testcrosses were produced between 23 inbreds and three testers. All genotypes were evaluated under low (LD), medium (MD) and high (HD) density (47,600, 71,400 and 95,200 plants/ha, respectively). The highest stress tolerance index (STI) under HD and MD was exhibited by the inbred lines L21, IL15,  IL53, Inb176, IL80, L28, IL151 and L14 and the testcrosses IL51 × Giza2 , IL51 × SC10, L14 × SC10, L28 × Sd7, IL53 × SC10 and L28 × SC10, in descending order. Grain yield/ha (GYPH) of density tolerant (T) was greater than the sensitive (S) inbreds and testcrosses by 100.6 and 89.3%, respectively under HD. Superiority in GYPH was associated with superiority in all yield components, earliness in anthesis, shortening of anthesis-silking interval and plant height, thickness of lower and upper stem diameter, decrease in leaf angle and leaf area to produce 1g grain, increase in penetrated light to ear and in chlorophyll concentration index than the sensitive ones. The study concluded that to have a density tolerant cross, both parents should be tolerant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Combined Application of Organic Manure and Inorganic Nitrogen on Marketable Yield, Shelf Life of Onion and Soil Fertility Status after Harvest

Yohannes Gebremichael, Kebede Woldetsadik, Fikreyohannes Gedamu

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/36671

Low soil fertility is one of the most important constraints limiting onion production in Eastern Africa. Farmers northern Ethiopia should tackle this problem through combined application of organic and mineral fertilizers, which amend the soil environment. An investigation was carried out to study the effect of combined application of organic manure and inorganic nitrogen on marketable yield, shelf life of onion and soil fertility status after harvest from, October 2015 to June 2016. The treatments consisted of combinations of two rates of farmyard manure (FYM) (10 and 20 t ha-1), two rates of vermicompost (VC) (2.5 and 5 t ha-1), and three rates of recommended N fertilizers (RDF) (25, 50 and 75%). 100% RDF N (69 kg N ha-1), 100% (5 t ha-1) of VC, 100% (20 t ha-1) FYM and (absolute control) were used for comparison. Results from the experiment revealed that onion storage life significant influenced by the combined application of organic and inorganic N fertilizers. Application of 5 t ha-1 VC + 50% RDF N recorded the highest marketable yield and lowest onion bulb weight loss throughout the storage period. While, maximum bulb weight loss (36.16%) was recorded during 12th week of storage under the application of 100% RDF N. The absolute control showed the least % bulb rotting and sprouting, hence, the lowest % bulb rotting (1.67, 2.27; and 4.06) were recorded during the 8th, 10th, and 12th week storage period respectively, in bulbs from the control treatment. On the other hand combined use of 2.5-5 t ha-1 VC with 25-75% of N resulted in higher total nitrogen, available K, available P, CEC, EC, OC; and organic matter of the soil over the control treatments. Applications of organic inputs in combination with chemical fertilizer were found better option than application of organic manure or chemical fertilizer alone for better onion yield, shelf life and soil fertility replenishment. Therefore, it is concluded that the application of organic fertilizer (vermicompost) along with inorganic fertilizer (nitrogen) could be better for onion yield, shelf life and soil fertility replenishment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Estimation of the Costs and Returns of Integrated Fish-Based Farming Systems in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria

C. J. Malgwi, S. S. Mailumo, J. G. Akpoko

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/36867

The present study was conducted to know the costs and returns of three integrated fish-based farming (IFF) systems in Kaduna metropolis of Nigeria during 2015 to 2016 farming season. Primary data were collected through the structured questionnaire from 138 fished-based farmers and analyzed using net farm income and ANOVA. The results indicated that among the three integrated farming systems, fish-poultry farming was the most profitable farming with a net income of N1,166,441.80 and BCR of 1.69 followed by fish-vegetable farming with net income of N770,708.87 and BCR of 1.31. The least was fish-pig farming with a net income of N759, 052.11 and BCR 1.25. The ANOVA results showed that the calculated F value of 12.08 was significant at 1% probability level, implying that there was a significant difference in the profitability of the three fish-based farming systems in the study area. It was recommended that government and the private sector should provide adequate funding for livestock research that has to do with development of low cost, high quality feeds using local feed materials and manufacturing/fabrication of local machines.