Open Access Original Research Article

Performance and Analysis of F2 Diallel Cross among Six Faba Bean Genotypes under Orobanche Infested Soil at Giza Research Station, Egypt

M. M. F. Abdalla, M. M. Shafik, Sabah M. Attia, Hend, A. Ghannam

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/35925

The present investigation was carried out under the naturally infested field of Orobanche at Giza Research Station during 2013/2014 growing seasons. F2 diallel crosses including reciprocals among six faba bean genotypes (Giza 843, Nubaria 1, Cairo 25, Cairo 5, Cairo 33 and Misr 3) were used to study the performance and reaction of genotypes to Orobanche and to estimate the magnitude of combining ability and type of gene action using diallel analysis. Analysis of variance indicated highly significant differences among the entries for all studied characters. The results showed that the parents Cairo 25, Cairo 5 and Cairo 33 had negative effects of general combining ability (GCA) for earliness in flowering, while the parents Giza 843 and Cairo 25 had positive GCA effects for plant height. Also, the parental genotypes Cairo 5 and Misr 3 were the best combiners for pods/plant, seeds/plant, seed yield/plant and 100-seed weight. The parental genotype Misr 3 was good combiner for Orobanche tolerance. Many crosses had highly significant positive specific combining ability (SCA) effects for most studied traits. The best crosses for SCA effects were                              ( Nubaria 1 x Cairo 5)  and (Cairo 25 x Cairo 5) for  number of branches/plant, number of pods/plant, number of seeds / plant, seed yield/plant, 100-seed weight, number of Orobanche spikes/plot and Orobanche spikes dry weight/plot. Also for reciprocals there were many crosses had positive SCA effects. The crosses (Cairo 5 x Giza 843) possessed reciprocal effects for all studied traits except for days to flowering and Orobanche spikes dry weight/plot. GCA/SCA ratios revealed the predominance of additive gene action for days to flowering, 100-seed weight, number of Orobanche spikes/plot and Orobanche dry weight/plot. Inbreeding improved tolerance to Orobanche. This occurred in tolerant x tolerant, tolerant x susceptible and susceptible x susceptible combinations. Selection can be conducted in segregating generations of hybrid and their reciprocals crosses distinguished for the development of promising high yield crops and tolerant genotypes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pattern of Pesticide Usage in Curry Leaf and Farmers Views

G. Priyadarshini, Shashi Vemuri, C. Narendra Reddy, S. Swarupa

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/34458

Curry leaf [Murraya koeinigii (L.) Sprengel] exported from India had insecticide residues above maximum residue limits, which are hazardous to consumer health and caused rejection of the commodity at point of entry in Europe and middle east resulting in a check on export of curry  leaf. Hence to study current pesticide usage patterns in major curry leaf growing areas, a survey on pesticide use pattern was carried out in curry leaf growing areas in Medak district of Telangana; Anantapur and Guntur districts of Andhra Pradesh during 2014-15, interviewing farmers growing curry leaf utilizing the questionnaire to assess their knowledge and practices on crop cultivation, general awareness on pesticide recommendations and use and to ensure minimal pesticide residue levels in consumer food. Education levels of farmers are less (68.00 per cent were high school educated. 43.29 per cent of farmers had curry leaf area below five acres, while 3.00 per cent of farmers had above thirty acres. Awareness on pesticide related issues was varying among farmers with some commonality, where 35.71 per cent farmers knew about recommended pesticides while only 24.29 per cent of farmers were aware of pesticide classification based on toxicity. However, in general, most of the farmers (70 per cent) contacted pesticide dealer for recommendations, where as 30 per cent per cent of the farmers preferred to contact scientists and agricultural officers. Farmers were aware of endosulfan ban (93.86 per cent), but only 38.57 per cent of farmers knew about the ban of monocrotophos on vegetables. Very few farmers knew about pesticide residues and decontamination by washing. Extension educational interventions are necessary to produce fresh curry leaf free from pesticide residues.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) Utilization and Production in Eastern Parts of Kenya

Mercy Liharaka Kidaha, Fredah K. Rimberia, Remmy Kasili Wekesa, Wariara Kariuki

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/34705

Tamarind is a fruit tree native to tropical parts of Africa and Asia It is used as a source of raw material in food industry, timber and landscaping. Despite the great value of tamarind, there is no information related to how it is utilized and produced in Kenya. The objective of this study was to evaluate tamarind production and utilization in Eastern parts of Kenya. Questionnaires were used to obtain information on production systems, planting material, cultural practices, proportion of tamarind sold, time taken to maturity, maturity indices, uses and challenges in tamarind production. Results indicated that all the farmers interviewed depended on seeds as their source of planting material. Farmers reported that tamarind was mainly grown for market and subsistence use. Majority of the respondents used tamarind as fruit, an ingredient in porridge and as a source of herbal medicine. Cultural practices carried out in tamarind production were intercropping, weed control and harvesting. Majority of farmers were not able to determine the actual time trees take to mature but some approximated it to take 5-6 years. Most of the respondent identified fruit color and brittleness of the pod as key maturity indicators. Despite the reports that farmers had no problems on diseases they hardly harvested more than 270 Kg of fruits per plant. Challenges reported by most farmers included aphid infestation, harvesting from tall trees, marketing and transportation. Tamarind trees are of great importance in the Eastern parts of Kenya and more research should be done to improve the crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility of Red Sokoto Goats Fed Urea Treated Maize Stover Supplemented with Graded Levels of Balanites aegyptiaca Leaf Forage

A. J. Hyelda, M. M. Yahya, Z. A. Gworgwor

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/36076

Sixteen Red Sokoto male goats weighing on average 9.36±0.67 Kg were used for the experiment in a completely randomised design (CRD) for a duration of 12 weeks to determine the total feed intake, weight gain and apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients. The treatments were; A (control): the basal diet (maize stover treated with 4% urea) plus 100 g maize bran, B: control diet plus 100 g Balanites aegyptiaca, C: control diet plus 200 g Balanites aegyptiaca and D: control diet plus 300 g Balanites aegyptiaca. All animals were allowed ad libitum access to water and mineral lick. p<0.05 was considered as level of significance. Supplementing urea treated maize stover with Balanites aegyptiaca resulted in increased (p<0.05) total dry matter (DM) intake from 346.12 g/day (control), to 423.73 g/day (treatment B), 488.54 g/day (treatment C) and 536.81 g/day (treatment D). Supplementation increased (p<0.05) daily weight gain. Treatment D recorded the highest value of 52.00 g/day. Apparent DM digestibility increased (p<0.05) with supplementation with treatment D having the highest value of 74.32%. Nutrient digestibility also increased (p<0.05) with treatment D supplemented group having the highest values for all the parameters recorded.

Open Access Original Research Article

Irrigation Management for Optimizing Onion Seed Production

M. H. Ali

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/35863

Onion is seen as a major horticultural crop in Bangladesh. Irrigation technologies that conserve water are necessary to assure the economic and environmental sustainability of commercial agriculture. This study was conducted in Lysimeter to observe the effect of different irrigation regimes on onion seed and bulb yield. Irrigation regime consisted of five irrigation treatments: Irrigation at pre-vegetative stage up to field capacity [T1]; Irrigation at pre-vegetative and vegetative stage [T2]; Irrigation at pre-vegetative, vegetative stage, and bulb formation stage [T3]; Irrigation at pre-vegetative, vegetative, bulb formation, and flowering stage [T4]; and  Irrigation at pre-vegetative, vegetative, bulb formation, pre-flowering, and late flowering stage [T5] up to field capacity. The results revealed insignificant effect on seed and bulb yield, and yield attributes except plant height. The cultivars showed significant effect on all yield attributes and seed yield of onion. The highest seed yield (76.98 gm.m-2) as well as water productivity (33.95 kg ha-1 cm-1) was obtained from T4 treatment, which received four irrigations (total 11.06 cm). The onion mutants produced higher seed yield than the check cultivar Baripiaj 2. The highest seed yield was found under Bp2/75/2 mutant (73.93 gm/m2). From the present results, it is revealed that irrigation at pre-vegetative, vegetative, bulb formation and flowering stages up to field capacity are required for higher seed yield of onion at Mymensingh area.