Open Access Original Research Article

Moringa oleifera Extracts Effect on Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani Growth

M. Goss, P. Mafongoya, A. Gubba

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/29835

Aims: An in vitro study was conducted to test the effect of concentration levels of Moringa oleifera leaf and seed extracts in controlling the growth of Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani pathogens.

Study Design: The experimental design was a 2*7 factorial laid out in a Completely Randomized Design. Potato Dextrose Agar was amended with Moringa leaf extract and seed extract, and mycelial growth of R. solani and F. solani were measured.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Zimbabwe pathology laboratory during 2014/ 2015 season.

Methodology: The concentrations levels of 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% from each extract were used. Distilled water (0%) was used as negative control, whilst 10% copper oxychloride was the positive control. Potato Dextrose Agar was amended with Moringa leaf extract and seed extract, and mycelial growth of R. solani and F. solani were measured. 

Results: All extracts showed a significant effect on reducing fungal growth (P=0.05). The higher the extract concentration level, the less the mycelial growth and no mycelial growth occurred on the positive control (10% copper oxychloride). Maximum percentages of inhibition of 45 and 50% was recorded against R. solani using Moringa seed extract at 25 and 30% concentrations, respectively. Both Moringa extracts gave 50% inhibition growth of F. solani at the 30% concentration level.

Conclusion: Moringa leaf and seed extracts contain antifungal properties which inhibited growth of R. solani and F. solani. Moringa extract concentration levels influenced the antifungal efficacy of the extracts, with higher concentration levels exhibiting an increased antifungal ability against the test pathogens. The phytochemical analysis of Moringa leaves and seed solvent extracts showed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, tanin and phenolic compounds, terpenoids, etc.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects and Economics of Processed Tallow (Detarium microcarpum, Guill and Sperr) Seed Meal Substituted with Soybean in Broiler Chickens Diet

C. O. Obun, B. C. Lalabe, P. A. Shinggu, Y. Tor-Agbidye, A. T. Junaidu

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/35130

A feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of soaked-toasted tallow seed meal (STTSM) as replacement for soybean on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass and primal cuts weights and feed cost benefits. The experimental layout was a completely randomized design with three treatments replicated three times. Three hundred and sixty one-day-old Amo broiler chicks were randomly allocated to the three dietary treatments; each treatment had one hundred and twenty (120) chicks and forty chicks per replicate were fed for 56 days. Dietary soybean was replaced by STTSM at 0, 10 and 20% on protein to protein basis. Results of the performance revealed superior (P<0.05) final weight, weight gain, total feed intake and feed conversion ratio of birds on 0% STTSM diet compared with those on STTSM based-diets. The daily weight gain and daily feed intake were not significantly (P>0.05) different among the treatment groups. The apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of dry matter, nitrogen, crude protein, crude fiber, ash, fat, Ca and P were not significantly affected across the treatments. The pre-slaughtered, percentage carcass weights and cut-parts of birds on 0% STTSM diet were significantly (P<0.05) superior compared with birds on 10 and 20% STTSM diets. The economic analysis showed that 20% STTSM diet was cheapest (P<0.05) to produce 1 kg broiler meat at ₦437.29/kg compared with those on 10% (₦458.8/kg) and 0% (₦476.33/kg) STTSM diets. It is concluded that chicks fed STTSM based-diets depressed growth performance, percentage carcass and cut parts weight but with no adverse effects on ADC. Based on similarity in ADC and lower cost of producing per Kg of feed, feed cost savings (%) and meat produced per Kg. STTSM in diet shows good prospect as an alternative cheap feed substitute for soybean meals and therefore up to 20% level of inclusion in broiler chicks diets is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diagonal Offset Arrangement and Spacing Architecture Effect on Growth and Yield Components of Grain Amaranth in Kenya

Alice Ngetich Rotich, Joseph P. Gweyi-Onyango, Nicholas K. Korir

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/35312

The grain Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) is often referred to as the crop of the future because of its advantages both for production and consumption. However, the grain amaranth has an under-exploited potential that can contribute to food security, nutrition, health, income generation and environmental services. However, productivity of the crop in Kenya where it is grown in small plots has not been fully utilized. The current study was conducted to find out how conventional intra row spacing and diagonal offset spacing influence growth and yield of grain amaranth. A field experiment was carried out at Kenyatta University field station. It was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with two arrangements (Conventional and Diagonal Offset) and two row spacings (30 cm × 15 cm and 15 cm × 15 cm) that was replicated three times. The longest roots (23.0 cm) were observed in the diagonal offset with 15×15 cm during season one and the widest stem diameter were elicited under the 15×15 cm in the diagonal offset arrangement with 0.62 cm and 1.05 cm recorded during the first and second season, respectively. The root mass under the diagonal offset arrangement at 15×15 cm  spacing had the highest with 26.3 g and 25.0 g per plant during the first and second season, respectively. The least leaf area per plant was recorded under the narrow spacing (15×15 cm) of the conventional arrangement for both seasons while the greatest was under the narrow spacing of the diagonal offset arrangement recording a mean of 1200 cm2 and 1230 cm2 for the first and second seasons, respectively. The diagonal offset arrangement under the narrow spacing showed the highest grain yield per plant with a mean of 48.2 g during the first season and 47.22 g during the second season. There were no significant differences between the treatments on the number of leaves, plant height, number of branches per plant and the 1000-seed mass. The Diagonal offset arrangement led to improved performance of grain amaranth in both seasons and is therefore highly recommended especially in the narrow spacing of 15×15 cm. In conclusion, results of this study revealed that the narrow spacing of 15×15 cm under the diagonal offset arrangement led to the best performance of grain amaranth and is highly recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Waste Dump on Heavy Metal Pollution of Riverbank Soil and Physico-chemical Properties of River Arumangye in Doma, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

E. Ndor, S. N. Dauda, O. J. Jayeoba

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/34486

In Nigeria, rivers and streams are natural water bodies that flow through cities and town. These rivers and streams are badly kept with their banks serving as disposal site. A study was conducted in 2015 in river Arumangye, with the aim of evaluating the effect of waste dump on heavy metal pollution index of the riverbank soil and assessed the quality of water. The result revealed that the riverbank soil was contaminated with heavy metals. The largest concentration of heavy metal present was Nickel (54 mg/kg) followed by Iron (5.04 mg/kg), Manganese (1.66 mg/kg), Cadmium (1.15 mg/kg),  Cupper (0.65 mg/kg), Zinc (0.64 mg/kg) and the least was Lead (0.16 mg/kg). These metal content increases in ascending order in the soil as follows: Pb < Zn< Cu < Cd< Mn < Fe < Ni. However, the riverbank soil pollution index showed a reverse trend as follows: Mn < Ni< Zn < Cd< Pb < Cu < Fe. The pH Value of water from downstream was 6.45 which is slightly acidic than the upstream pH value of 8.12, while the midstream was 7.02. The WHO standard for a good drinking water has a pH value of 7.0-8.5. Also, ammonia nitrogen concentration on the downstream is high with a value of 0.64 mg/l, which is higher than the upstream (0.40 mg/l) and the midstream value of 0.49 mg/l; which is lower than the WHO standard value of 0.5 mg/l ammonia. Concentration of chloride at upstream was 23.00 mg/l, midstream sampling point had 24.00 mg/l of chloride compound and the downstream recorded the highest concentration of 28.80 mg/l of chloride. Dissolved oxygen in upstream was 3.80 mg/l of oxygen, midstream had 2.10 mg/l of oxygen and the downstream had a concentration of 1.90 mg/l of dissolved oxygen. The carbon dioxide concentration was more on the midstream (27.62 mg/l) sampling point compare to the upstream (18.67 mg/l) and downstream (18.69 mg/l). The water hardness was more at the upstream        (22.00 mg/l), while at the midstream it became 20.00 mg/l and decreases again at the downstream to 18.78 mg/l. Therefore, dumping waste in river Arumangye contributed in polluting the river bank soil with heavy metals. However water quality of the is river still good for consumption; since most of the parameters assessed are within WHO minimum standard requirement of a good drinking water.

Open Access Original Research Article

Can Phosphate Rock Boost Maize (Zea mays L.) Growth under Alkaline Soil Conditions?

Wahiba A. Mohamed, Mohammed A. Elsheikh, Mai M. O. Ahmed, Saad Sulieman

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/35062

Phosphorus deficiency forms an important constraint for crop production, especially in tropical marginal countries like the Sudan. Unfortunately, the majority of soils in the Sudan are phosphate (Pi) deficient, while chemical Pi fertilizers are not affordable for resource-poor farmers. Thus, alternative fertilization strategies are urgently needed to improve yields of crops, especially on alkaline low-fertile soils. Having some novel and simple solutions can offer tremendous opportunities to protect the environment, rebuild soil fertility, and improve food security in the Sudan and similar countries. Hence, a pot experiment was conducted to study the impact of phosphate rock (PR) on the growth performance of maize “line KHM405” grown in two types of alkaline soils differing in the soil physical and chemical properties (clay vs. sand-clay-loam). Results obtained showed that the application of PR to clay or sand-clay-loam soil had no significant effect on all examined parameters (plant and soil). Because of the alkalinity of the soil, the present study indicated the importance of future studies to establish efficient methods of partial acidulation to improve the solubility of phosphate in the PR materials.