Open Access Original Research Article

Modelling of the Thermophysical Properties of Ground Dika Kernel (Irvingia wombolu Vermoesen) as Affected by Temperature and Moisture Content

Beatrice M. Fasogbon, Kehinde A. Taiwo

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/34845

The specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity of the ground dika (Irvingia wombolu Vermoesen) kernel were measured using the thermal probe method. Bulk density was determined using the graduated cylinder and the value obtained was used to calculate thermal diffusivity. The effects of temperature (Room temperature – 90  ) and moisture content (5.17 – 20% wet basis) on the thermo physical properties of the ground and hydrated dika kernel were studied. Linear, quadratic and cubic regressions were modelled at each temperature as a function of the corresponding moisture contents, and the best model was selected based on the coefficient of determination (R2) values. The results of the specific heat capacity ranged between 0.951 and 3.089 kJ/kg , thermal conductivity (4.36 and 31.87 W/m *105), bulk density (0.492 and 0.680 g/cm3) and the thermal diffusivity values between 6.313 and 43.065 m2/s*105. All the values are within literature range. The result of the investigation revealed that thermo physical properties were moisture content and temperature dependent, and quadratic equation fitted all the models than linear equation for all the properties investigated. The data obtained from the study can be used in the process design of the ground kernel or the soup on a commercial scale.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on Population of Green Peach Aphid (Myzus persicae) on Garden Pea (Pisum sativa) in Tharaka Nithi County, Kenya

Odhiambo Nephat, Nderitu Wangari Peris

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/28192

Garden pea (Pisum sativa.z) is an annual crop in Kenya, for horticultural export. The green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) is one of the most important pests. Nitrogen fertilizers have been increasingly used to most annual crops to improve crop production. However, excessive nitrogen fertilizer application has been found to aggravate aphid infestation. The study therefore, determined the level of infestation by the green peach aphid under different nitrogen levels on garden pea .The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Block Design with four treatments replicated thrice. Treatments included: 0 g, 1 g, 1.5 g and 2 g of nitrogen foliar feed per litre of water. Data was collected weekly for 3 consecutive weeks on aphid population. It was analyzed using SAS, subjected to ANOVA and least significant difference for means separation at 5%. Highest aphid number was recorded on 2 g treatment. Treatments 1.5 g and 1g recorded lower aphid number. Control treatment had a declining aphid population. There was no significant difference on the first sampling days. However, week 3 recorded no significant difference across all treatments except on the 2 g treatment. Based on the study, it is possible to influence aphid performance by altering nitrogen level.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Assessment of the Adoption of Improved Rice Processing Technologies: A Case of Rice Farmers in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria

S. O. Adejoh, N. Madugu, U. M. Shaibu

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/34333

Aim: To ascertain the adoption of improved rice processing technologies among rice farmers in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria.

Study Design: Survey research.

Place and Duration of Study: Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria, between June and August, 2016.

Methodology: A simple random sampling technique was used to select 240 rice farmers from four of the six agricultural zones as delineated by the FCT Agricultural Development Project (FCT-ADP) for the study. Descriptive statistics, sigma scoring method and binary logistic model were used to analyse primary data obtained through questionnaire administration.

Results: Results from the findings showed that 72.5% of the farmers were male with an average age of 43 years. Rice farmers in the area had a mean farming experience of 9 years and operated on an average farm size of 4 hectares with average annual income from processing activities of N158, 244. The results further indicated a generally low level of adoption with respect to improved paddy steaming (sigma score = 5.1) and improved drying (sigma score = 4.1). The marginal effect of access to credit, awareness, and years of processing experience directly influenced the probability of adoption of improved rice processing technologies among rice farmers in the area at 5%, while household size decreased adoption at 1%.

Conclusion: There was low adoption of processing technologies among rice farmers due to high purchase costs and other constraining socioeconomic variables. The study therefore recommends the establishment of effective linkage system and collaboration of the major stakeholders towards appropriate technology development and dissemination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Climate Change: Perception and Determinants of Rural Farmer’s Adaptation in Abia State

Ikenna V. Ejiba, Oluwadamilola K. Adams

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/33035

This study was carried to examine the determinants of rural farmers’ adaptation to climate change, and their perception with respect to farmers’ socio-economic profile. The study conducted in Abia state utilized 120 farmers selected from 4 communities and 2 Local Government Area’s through multi-stage random sampling. Primary data was sourced and collected through a structured questionnaire which elicited information relating farmers’ socio-economic characteristics, climate change incidences and perception; and adaptation. Result from the descriptive statistics suggest that majority (84.2%) of the farmers are male. Also, 61.9% are 49 years and above suggesting that rural farming now is mostly dominated by more advanced farmers. More of the farmers (42.9%) spent at most 6 years in school. In addition, and comparing with NIMET data on climate variables, more farmers (74.5%) of age 50 and above perceived the changes in climate in relation to precipitation more correctly relative to other age groups. Also, 90.9% of farmers with more than 13 years of education perceived correctly as compared to 80% of farmers with 0-6 years. About 64.4% of female farmers perceived correctly the changes in climate as against 60% of male farmers who perceived correctly. The Logit regression result used to analyze the determinants of adaptation of rural farmers to climate change in the study area revealed that number of years in school, access to credit, and co-operative membership showed positive significant relationship with adaptation. Gender of farmer however showed a negative relationship with adaptation of farmer to climate change. This study reiterates the importance of micro-credit in agricultural development and poverty reduction especially in the rural areas as it enhances the likelihood of adoption of adaptation practices by farmers. This study therefore calls for a more holistic approach in solving the problem of credit especially in the rural areas so as to increase farmers’ capacity to adapt to the vagaries of a changing climate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Soaked-toasted Tallow (Detarium microcarpum, Guill and Sperr) Seeds Meal on the Nutritional and Anti-nutritional and Growth Assay of Starter Broiler Chickens

C. O. Obun, B. C. Lalabe, P. A. Shinggu, Y. Tor-Agbidye, A. T. Junaidu

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/35421

This study was designed to evaluate the effects of raw and soaked-toasted Tallow seeds meals on proximate composition, mineral contents, amino acids profile, anti-nutrients and growth performance of starter broiler chickens fed dietary levels of 0, 10 and 20% soaked-toasted Tallow seed meal (STTSM). Proximate analysis, amino acids profile, minerals and anti nutrients contents of the raw and soaked-toasted tallow seeds were carried out. Three hundred and sixty (360) day-old broiler chicks of the Amo Strain were used to evaluate growth performance. The experimental layout was a completely randomized design with three treatments, each with three replicates (40 birds/ replicate). The inclusion levels of STTSM in the diets were 0, 10 and 20% (w/w). The results of the proximate analysis of the raw tallow seeds were high in crude protein (26.20%), moisture (10.58%), fat (16.21%), crude fibre (11.86%), ash (3.72), neutral detergent fibre (49.72%), acid detergent fibre (37.31%), hemi-cellulose (12.41%). with decrease in nitrogen free extracts (42.01%). The results of the element concentrations in raw and STTSM samples were (%): Ca (0.92-0.75), Mg (0.30-0.27), Na (0.41-32), S (0.17-14), P (0.22-14), K (1.00-0.66) and Fe (123-118 ppm). The results of the anti nutrients (mg/100 g) of the raw sample revealed the presence of tannin (9.56), phytic acid (25.49), hydrogen cyanide (5.08), alkaloids (8.39),oxalate (16.36) and flavonoids (4.32) compared with the STTSM showing complete elimination of tannin, saponin, hydrogen cyanide and insignificant presence of alkaloids (0.05 mg/100 g), phytic acid 0.02 mg/100 g), oxalate (0.02 mg/100 g) and flavonoids (0.01 mg/100 g). The analyzed amino acids results showed that glutamic acid (8.03-7.50 g/100 g) and arginine 4.25-4.62 g/100 g protein had the highest proportion. The soaked-toasted seeds showed reduction in amino acid profile compared with the raw sample. ANOVA showed that final body weight, body weight gain, total feed intake, daily weight gain, daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio of birds fed 0% STTSM diet were comparable (p>0.05) with those fed STTSM based diets. Soaked-toasted Tallow seed reduced the anti nutritional factors and improved the nutritional quality of the seed and enhanced growth of starter broiler chicks without adverse effect on growth performance and feed intake. This seed can therefore be incorporated in animal feeding with proper processing methods.