Open Access Minireview Article

The Problem of Prickling on Fabrics of South American Camelids Fibers: Possible Approaches for Mechanical Solutions

E. N. Frank, M. H. V. Hick, L. A. Riva de Neyra

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/34692

In this minireview it is to analyze the physical attributes that determine the comfort of fabrics made of South American Camelid fibers (Lama and Alpaca), discuss the effect on their textile value and evaluate an possible approache on their possible mechanical solutions. Taking the distribution of all fibers do not respond to a normal distribution, but the different fiber types identified by the type of medulla, they do respond to a normal distribution. While emphasis has always been on mean fiber diameter, the fiber frequency exceeding 30 microns (objectionable fibres) has a key role in quality. This is essential for light fabrics, where the effect of prickle plays a critical part in consumer´s choice. Dehairing, as a mechanical way, provides an immediate solution, though excessive fiber breakage should be addressed. It is concluded that the textile fiber quality of South American Camelids is promissory if the presence of objectionable fibers is solved, resulting in a tolerable frequency for consumers (<3%). This implies a true paradigm shift with regard to the classic textile processing of Alpaca and Lama fibers (from worsted to woolen system). This would enhance the fiber softness to touch, together with other important features that would render the fiber price more competitive.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Instability in Selected Cereal Crops in Benue State, Nigeria and Its Implications for Food Security

Orefi Abu, Omojo Adakole

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/33100

This study was carried out to determine growth rate and instability in area, output and yield of selected cereals and its implications for food security in Benue State, Nigeria from 1986 to 2012. In addition, sources of growth in output were also examined. To achieve this, exponential trend equation, Cuddy-Della Valle index (CDVI) and decomposition analysis were employed. The estimated compound growth rates for area of maize, millet, rice and sorghum were 4.3%, 9.8%, 1.8% and -2.4% respectively. Compound growth rates of output were 4.7%, 13.1%, 12.6% and 0.9% for maize, millet, rice and sorghum respectively and were significant. While compound growth rate for yield on the other hand showed growth rates of 1.8%, 2.5%, -0.8% and 3.2% for maize, millet, rice and sorghum in that order. Results for instability showed that area, output and yield of the selected cereals were unstable during the period under study owing to instability index of over 10%.

Sources of output growth for the selected cereals showed that increase in maize output was due largely to yield effect. While growth in of millet output was due to yield, area and interaction effect. Source of output growth for rice was due mainly to yield effect while increase in output of sorghum on the other hand, was due to area effect. Therefore, appropriate policy aimed at increasing the growth rates of less performing crop such as investing in agricultural research, timely supply of inputs on the use of high yielding varieties ought to be put in place to narrow the productivity gap, reduce instability, enhance availability and improve food security.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenotypic Correlations and Body Weight Prediction of Two Ectotypes of Giant African Land Snails (Archachatina maginata, Swain.) Based on Number of Whorls in Calabar, Nigeria

O. M. Etukudo, E. E. Ekerette, A. J. Umoyen

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/33778

Background: Giant African land snail (Archachatina marginata) is a micro livestock with potentials as a protein source especially among impoverished individuals. As such, it requires much research attention to fully unveil it genetic nature for possible improvements.

Materials and Methods: Two hundred (200) snails consisting of one hundred (100) each of black-skinned ectotype and white-skinned ectotype were selected based on number of whorls from a population gathered in the wild within Cross River State for the study. Data collected on number of whorls from the two ectotypes of snails were used for predicting body weights from phenotypic traits.

Results: The black-skinned ectotype body weight ranged from 0.70 g to 153.90 g, while the white-skinned ectotype body weight ranged from 0.60 g to 72.10 g. The results obtained from the study showed positive, strong and very high significant correlation coefficients (p<0.001) between body weights and all body components measured based on 2 and 3 whorls for the two ectotypes of        A. marginata. A non-significant (p>0.05) phenotypic correlation was recorded for white-skinned ectotype with 4 whorls between mouth shell width and all the body components measured. Whereas a non-significant (p>0.05) phenotypic correlation was only recorded for mouth shell width and mouth shell length of 5 whorls for white-skinned snails. Prediction equations for the body weight of A. marginata with 2, 3, 4 and 5 whorls using body shell length, body shell width, mouth shell length and mouth shell width best predicted accurately body weight for the two ectotypes of snails with 2, 3, 4, and 5 whorls.

Conclusion: These phenotypic traits of the two ectotypes of snails studied could be chosen to characterize growing snails in Calabar, Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Inter-cropping and a Herbicide on Management of Striga hermonthica on Sorghum

Mazen Ahmed Abdalroof, Amani Hamad Eltayeb, Rashida M. A. Abusin

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/34562

Aims: The present work was undertaken to determine the effects of the herbicide chlorsulfuron and intercropping sorghum (cv.Wad-Ahmed) with cowpea (T100K-901-6 cv.) on S. hermonthica incidence and sorghum growth.

Study Design: Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: A series of laboratory and greenhouse experiments was undertaken at the College of Agricultural Studies, Sudan University of Science and Technology (SUST) at Shambat, during the season 2013/2014.

Methodology: Striga free or infested soil was placed in plastic pots (9 cm i .d) with perforations at the bottoms. Pots filled with Striga free soil (0 mg) were included as control for comparison. Sorghum cultivar Wad-Ahmed was sown as sole crop or intercropped with cowpea. Chlorsulfuron at 1.3 g active ingredient (a.i)/fed was applied three weeks after sowing. Plant height and Stem diameter were measured in centimetres using a ruler and vernier caliper instrument, respectively, while weight was weighed in gram after drying using a balance.

Results: At 60 and 75 days after sowing (DAS), irrespective of Striga seed bank size, cowpea intercropped with sorghum displayed significant reduction in stem diameter (19.0-56.7%). Sorghum intercropped with cowpea at Striga seed bank size of 16 mg/pot resulted in a significant reduction in sorghum dry weight (61.6%). However, at 60 and 75 DAS displayed a significant reduction in sorghum height only at the seed bank size of 16 mg/pot. Chlorsulfuron applied to Sole sorghum at Striga seed bank size of 16 mg/pot reduced sorghum dry weight by 51.9%. Sorghum intercropped with cowpea and subsequently treated with chlorsulfuron at Striga seed bank size of 16 mg/pot decreased sorghum height significantly (20.8 – 29.5%). Sorghum intercropped with cowpea and subsequently treated with chlorsulfuron, irrespective of Striga seed bank size, reduced sorghum dry weight (28.1- 47.6%).

Conclusion: According to this study, Striga management requires integrated practices comprising different components. Intercropping sorghum with cowpea reduced Striga emergence. Chlorsulfuron effectively reduced germination and suppressed Striga emergence.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Total Mixed Ration and Separate Feeding on Lactational Performance of Dairy Cows

Muhanned E. M. Awlad Mohammad, Murat Gorgulu, Serap Goncu

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/33663

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different feeding systems on milk production and milk composition of dairy cows. Thirty-two dairy cows having similar lactation number, Days in Milk (DIM), live body weight and milk production was divided into four groups. First group received Total Mixed Ration (TMR) ad libitum, second group received roughage and concentrate limited and separately in two meals, third group fed with partial TMR which included half of the concentrate in roughage part of the diet and remained concentrate was offered in two meals, and the last group was fed with roughage and concentrate separately and roughage was offered limited in two meals and concentrate was offered limited in four meals. The feeding systems affected dry matter intake (P<0.05). Limited feeding groups were fed on roughage and concentrate separately, the roughage intake in these groups was decreased, concentrate ratio was increased in the diet as well especially in the group receiving concentrate in two meals (P<0.05). In TMR group, milk yield was significantly increased due to increase in their feed intake (P<0.05, 2 kg/day higher than others). Milk total solid, fat and urea nitrogen contents were affected by feeding systems. Restricted and separate feeding system groups had lower total solid, fat and urea nitrogen in milk (P<0.05). In conclusion, the results showed that restricted and separate feeding of concentrate and roughage may not be applicable in practice as it decreased feed intake, milk yield and milk fat test.