Open Access Original Research Article

Image Analysis-based System for Estimating Cotton Leaf Area

A. M. Aboukarima, M. F. Zayed, M. Minyawi, H. A. Elsoury, H. H. H. Tarabye

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/33626

Leaf area is important for estimating biomass productivity, adaptation to the environment, nutrition, and soil-water relations. It also plays an important role in determining the proper application rates of insecticides and fungicides. Image processing is considered one of the best methods for estimating the leaf area of a plant as it is inexpensive and saves time. In the image processing method, leaf area is calculated through pixel number statistics by counting the number of pixels in the leaf area region of digital images. In this study, a simple system based on image analysis using the ImageJ software application was developed to estimate cotton leaf area. Two hundred and forty Egyptian cotton (Giza 86) leaves were captured using a digital camera. These leaves were collected randomly from different heights and different fields at Kafer El-Dawar center, El-Behera Governorate, Egypt. The results obtained using the proposed method was then compared with those obtained using the graphical method. There were only minor differences between both sets of results. The proposed method is feasible and practicable for estimating cotton leaf area as it has only a small overall average absolute relative error of 3.46% compared to the graphical method. Further, the proposed method is rapid, simple, and inexpensive.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Levels of Phosphorus and Sulphur on Seed & Stover Yield of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merill) under ‘Eutrochrepts’

Sandeep Kumar, Javeed Ahmad Wani, Bilal Ahmad Lone, Purshotam Singh, Zahoor Ahmad Dar, Sameera Qayoom, Asma Fayaz

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/32741

A field experiment was conducted at KVK, Srinagar during two consecutive kharif seasons of 2010 and 2011 to study the “Effect of phosphorus and sulphur on yield and quality of soybean (Glycine max L. Merill) under Eutrochrepts”. The experiment was laid down under 16 treatment combinations viz four levels of phosphorus (0, 30, 60, 90 kg P2O5 ha-1) and four levels of sulphur (0,15, 30, 45 kg S ha-1) in randomized complete block design with three replications .The soil of the experimental site was typic Eutrochrepts, silty clay loam in texture  having pH 7.18, EC 0.18 dSm-1, organic carbon 0.74 per cent, available N, P, K 250.52, 11.45, 120.62, kg ha-1, respectively. Soil was sufficient in available Fe, Cu, Mn and deficient in available Zn and sulphur. Total and organic phosphorus content in soil was 345 and 173 ppm, respectively while as total and organic sulphur content was 232 and 162 ppm, respectively. Both seed and stover yield of soybean increased significantly due to individual as well as combined application of phosphorus and sulphur.     Combined application of 45 kg S with 90 kg P2O5 produced highest seed (24.39 q ha-1) and stover (43.51 q ha-1) yield of soybean. Application of increasing levels of both phosphorus and sulphur resulted in a significant increase in macro and micronutrient content of soybean seed. With application of 90 kg P2O5 ha-1, maximum nutrient content of N, P, K, Ca,  Mg and S in seed was   6.42, 0.56, 1.876, 0.324  0.440, 0.466 per cent, respectively while as Fe, Cu, Mn was 100.01, 2.86 and 3.74 mg kg-1, respectively. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Depletion of Fish Resource in Lake Kitangiri, Tanzania: Poverty - Resource Overexploitation Nexus

Charles Reuben, Yasin Senkondo, Joel Msami, Regina John

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/33801

Lake Kitangiri in Singida, Tanzania is facing enormous pressure as a result of overfishing, illegal fishing, and environmental degradation. The increase in population and climate change have caused a shift from dependency on economic activities such as crop cultivation and livestock keeping to fishing. The limited fish resources are over utilized and have been depleted due to increased fishing activities. In order to determine trends of fish production at Lake Kitangiri and the associated effects of overexploitation, a study was carriedout. Data were collected using household questionnaires, focus group discussion and key informants interviews. fish production, output of farming activities in Lake Kitangiri were found to have been decreasing over years. More importanly, fishing activities in the area have intensified due to influx of people to the area. Illegal fishing activities at the habitat for fish breeding have led to the depletion of fish in the lake. The findings suggest that the depletion of fishery resources has negative effects to the income of the households surrounding the Lake. The government has been trying to combat illegal fishing activities without involving the community or the community based organizations. It is therefore recommended that the government should involve the community in the conservation of the resoures. The introduction of high value crops in the area will reduce the number of people that look at  fishing as the only viable livelihood activity thereby reducing pressure to the lake. It is also recommended that aquaculture be introduced to the area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Choice Feeding in the Pre-weaning Period on the Growth Performance of Calves during the Pre- and Post-weaning Periods

M. W. Hassani, M. Gorgulu; S. Goncu

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/33664

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of choice feeding in the pre-weaning period on the growth performance of calves during the pre- and post-weaning period. It is possible that high Crude protein (CP) intake during the pre-weaning period may improve post-weaning performance of calves. Currently, there is insufficient data available on the effect of pre-weaning feeding method on post-weaning performance of calves; therefore the aim of this study was to examine the effect of choice feeding on growth performance of calves during the pre and post-weaning period.

Results: Twenty eight male and 28 female Holstein calves were assigned to two different feeding systems. After weaning calves were fed with the same Total Mixed Ration (TMR) (50% calf grower + 50% alfalfa hay). Prior to weaning, choice-fed calves preferred the diet containing lower alfalfa and barley, and higher wheat bran and soybean meal (P<0.01). Choice feeding increased nutrient intake (protein and fiber) and daily weight gain (P < 0.05). The Metabolisable Energy (ME), Crude Protein (CP), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) and Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) contents of the diets selected by choice calves were 2.60 Mcal/kg, 29.24%, 27.18% and 12.01%, respectively. The TMR contained 2.23 Mcal/kg ME, 17.94% CP, 24.99% NDF and 11.85% ADF. Results show that calves choose their diet may meet their nutritional requirement and gain more weight.

Conclusions: In this study choice fed calves had higher daily weight gain during the pre-weaning, but not post-weaning, period. Furthermore, high preference for protein may have the long term effects on performance of young calves. It is therefore necessary to investigate the effect of early dietary preference of calves on their adult performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farm Level Strategic Response to Pesticide Regulations and Its Impact on Performance of Small Scale Vegetable Farmers in Tanzania

A. D. Funga, M. Chacha, B. Tiisekwa

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/33146

Aims: To analyze the impact of different farm-level strategic response to pesticide regulations on farm performance of small scale vegetable farmers.

Study Design: A cross-section survey of 167 small scale farmers was carried out to estimate the impact of pesticide regulations on farm performance. A structured interview was used to obtain descriptive information in the field.

Place and Duration of Study: Data collection for the study took place between January and April 2016 in the selected small scale vegetable farms in Mvomero and Kilosa districts in Morogoro region, Tanzania.

Methodology: The Hirschman’s framework was used to examine the strategic options through which small scale vegetable farmers respond to the private and public pesticide standards focusing on whether the strategy is loyalty, voice, exit and neglect. The logistic regression was used to estimate the impact of loyalty and exit strategies on the income and pesticide expenditure of small scale vegetable farmers. The instrument variable was used to account for endogeneity problem in regression function of pesticide use.

Results: About, 80% of the small scale vegetable farmers responded to pesticide regulations through “loyalty and exit” while 20% of the farmers deployed “neglect” option with no voice response. The regression results revealed that the loyalty and exit strategies are significantly but positively and negatively associated with pesticide expenditure and income of small scale vegetable farmers respectively. The small scale vegetable farmers who opted for loyalty and exit strategies not only have an increased amount spent on pesticides but also earn less income from vegetable production than those with a neglect strategic response.

Conclusion: The loyalty and exit strategies showed no desired impact on farm performance in terms of pesticide expenditure and income for small scale farmers. In an effort to build capacity, the small scale farmers should focus on strategies that exhibit loyalty and voice behavior.