Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Rice Germplasm for Resistance against Pyricularia oryzae the Cause of Rice Leaf Blast

Halima Qudsia, Awais Riaz, Muhammad Akhtar

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/31709

Rice blast caused by Pyricularia oryzae is one of the most important diseases in rice growing areas of the world. Fifty two rice genotypes including one susceptible check, Basmati C-622, were evaluated to find out new sources of resistance and assess their diversity based on the reactions against P. oryzae. The test genotypes were evaluated against leaf blast after three weeks of inoculation by following the standard evaluation system for rice introduced by the International Rice Research Institute, Philippines. Diversity of the 52 genotypes was also assessed based on blast symptoms. Moderately resistant reactions were observed with genotypes KSK-470, KSK-463, KSK-460, PK 8685-5-1-1-1, KSK-462, KSK-474, PK 3810-30-1, KSK-471 and KSK-472. The 52 genotypes were grouped in 4 clusters. The grouping of some genotypes in same cluster is based on their similar reaction against leaf blast. The results of this study can be useful for selecting suitable genotypes for the development of blast-resistant rice varieties through hybridization.

Open Access Original Research Article

Principal Component Analysis of Some Pesticide Handling Practices of Small Scale Vegetable Farmers in Rural and Urban Districts in Ghana

Denis Tange Achiri, Clement Akotsen-Mensa, Kwameh Afreh-Nuamah

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/32804

Aims: To compare the adherence to pesticide safety standards by small scale vegetable farmers from rural and urban districts in Ghana.

Place and Duration of Study: Accra Metropolitan Assembly (AMA) (Urban District) in Greater Accra Region and Kwaebibirim District (KD) (Rural District) in the Eastern Region of Ghana. The survey was conducted from August – November, 2012

Methodology: Sixty small scale vegetable farmers (30 from AMA and 30 from KD communities) responded to a questionnaire (11 questions) on pesticide handling practices. Principal component analysis with Varimax rotation was used to reduce the 11 questions for fear of redundancy. Factors with eigen value greater than 1 were maintained as they accounted for 77.12% of the variable in the data set. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted on the new factors to determine differences in scores for farmers from AMA and KD (P<.05). SPSS (version 16) was used for the analyses.

Results: After Varimax rotation, 5 new factors (F1, F2, F3, F4 and F5) were retained and they accounted for 77.12% of the variability in the data set. The new factors were renamed based on the factors that loaded in each factor. Farmers in KD had a significant higher mean score (0.70 +/- 0.46) than those from AMA (0.57 +/- 0.29) for F1 (Personal Hygiene and Sanitation). Farmers from AMA had a significant higher mean than those from KD (F = 33.99, P<0.01) for F2 (Eat and drink during or after spraying in the farm). There was no significant difference for F4 (I am the only one who sprays the field) and F5 (I have received training in pesticide application) (P>.05)

Conclusion: Farmers in rural districts (KD) take more precautions during pesticide handling than those in the urban districts (AMA). The age of the farmers may play a role in their behaviour. However, we propose that all farmers undergo training on pesticide use for better utilization with emphasis on farmers in urban districts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Productivity and Profitability of Groundnut Production (Arachis hypogea L.) in Lafia Local Government Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

S. I. Audu, A. A. Girei, E. G. Onuk, P. O. Onyenye

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/30705

This study assessed the economics of groundnut production in Lafia Local Government Area of Nasarawa State. Structured questionnaire was used to generate primary data for the study. Descriptive statistics, gross margin analysis, and double-log production function were employed in the analysis. Results revealed that majority of the respondents (57.5%) were relatively young and fell within the active age (25 – 45).Male respondents marginally dominated groundnut production at 51.7% and majority (78.3%) were married. Results further revealed that significant (78.3%) number of the respondents had below 10 inhabitants in their households. Educationally, 50.8% of respondents were educated. The net farm income per hectare was N14,355 and with a return on invested determined at 0.81implying that for every naira invested, the farmers makes 81 kobo (N0.81)and the cost –benefit ratio was calculated at 1.81 indicating that groundnut production is a viable and beneficial enterprise in the area. The double-log production function showed that the coefficient of multiple determinants (R2) was 0.536 which means that 54% of the variables were accounted for by the explanatory variable included in the model, while the F-value was 6.890. It was observed that; labour, seed, fertilizer and farm-size were significant while herbicide was not. Major constraints faced by the farmers were inadequate capital, high cost of labour, transportation, fertilizer, problem of pest and disease, poor storage facilities. Despite these constraints, the farmers made profit. Therefore, groundnut production could be one of the poverty alleviating enterprise, if well-articulated.  It is recommended  that: Storage facilities should be provided so that surplus groundnut can be stored to avoid spoilage, improve varieties of groundnut should be developed and made available to the farmers so that their yield can increase, and Farmers should form themselves into social groups so that they can create an organized market for their produce.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Genetic Combinations for Hybrid Rice in the Germplasm of Pakistan

Misbah Riaz, Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Akhter, Tahir Latif, Ahsan Raza Khan, Tahira Bibi

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/31597

An attractive approach is development of rice hybrids for the increase in crop productivity. A narrow genetic base and limited parental lines are the hindrance in the development of location specific hybrids. In this study 24 genotypes were crossed with 8 specific cytoplasmic sterile lines to check the heterosis for the development of hybrid rice and total 192 cross combinations were studies. Pollen fertility and spikelet fertility were the attributes on which the material was differentiated into restorers, partial restorers, partial maintainers and maintainers. Among the 192 test hybrids pollen parents with CMS lines were 14 behaved as restorers, restoring the fertility and 29 were maintaining the sterility while remaining were categorized as partial restorers and maintainers. The combination with local varieties basmati 515, super basmati, basmati 385, basmati 370 on the basis of restoring and maintainer fertility and sterility could be utilized in the development of hybrid rice in the country.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential of Botanical Extracts in the Control of Kale Aphids (Brevicoryne brassicaea) and Their Effect on the Parasitic Wasp (Aphidius ervi)

Nderitu Wangari Peris, J. J. Kiptoo

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/29849

The use of synthetic pesticides has made important impacts on aphid control.  However, it has limitations due to the development of aphid resistance and negative effects on human health and the environment. In this research, we explore alternatives to pesticides by examining the effectiveness of plant extracts (Mexican marigold, Sodom apples, garlic and ginger) on reducing populations of the kale aphid while preserving its parasitoid, Aphidius ervi.  Use of botanical plants would be of importance to small scale farmers due to their availability, affordability and environmental friendliness. The research was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Aphid numbers, mummified aphid numbers as well as parasitic wasps were counted; data was analyzed using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS) and mean separation done using Tukeys. Garlic extract was the most effective in control of aphids causing a reduction by 69.5%. Mexican marigold extract was the most effective as compared to garlic extract which controlled high percentage of kale aphids but was very lethal to the Aphidius ervi. Nonetheless, Mexican marigold extract was least effective in the control of aphids.