Open Access Short Research Article
A lysimeter is an equipment used to collect and measure soil water that drains below the root zone from a pasture or agriculture field. According to methods of measuring water content, lysimeter devides into weighing lysimeter and non-weighing lysimeter. The weighing lysimeters provide scientists the basic information for research related to evapotranspiration, and they are commonly divided into two types, continous weighing and intermittent weighing. Compared to laboratory experiments, out-door lysimeter studies have advantages like being closer to field environment conditions, it is possible to grow plants and therefore to study the fate of chemicals in soil/plant systems, transformations and leaching. The limitations are costy which depend on design, variable experimental conditions such as environmental/climatic parameters which are normally not controlled, the soil spatial variability is normally less, they are not suitable for every plant species and even every soil type. The objective of lysimeter is defining the crop coefficient (Kc) which used to convert ETr into equivalent crop evapotranpiration (ETc) values, and determing agronomical characteristics of crops which are planted in the field of lysimeter. The duration of a lysimeter study is determined by the objective of the study, but for different crops, it should normally be at least two years. Precipitation should be recorded daily at the lysimeter site. All weather data like air temperature, solar radiation, humidity and potential evporation should be obtained onsite, and the frequency and time of measurements should be at least daily.
Open Access Short communication
Fenugreek seeds were evaluated for diosgenin content and productivity which can be useful for pharmaceutical industries and farmers. Statistical significance was tested by ANOVA (n=5) followed by comparisons of means by DMRT (p≤0.05). Fenugreek seeds were grown in the experimental fields of Vegetable Research Center, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India for cropping year 2014. Two local varieties Pant Ragini (PR), Pusa Early Bunching (PEB) and eight accessions PM(C)1, PM 2, PM 3, PM 4, PM 5, PM 6, PM 7 and PM 8 were selected to evaluate high diosgenin content and productivity. Results indicate that fenugreek is a good source of diosgenin with high productivity, ranging from 0.40 to 0.60 g/100 g and 7.78 to 14.95 Kg ha-1, respectively. Significant differences (p≤0.05) were observed among the accessions and local varieties with respect to diosgenin content and productivity. The higher diosgenin content was recorded in local variety, PEB (0.60%) and PR (0.59%), followed by accession PM 7 (0.59%) and PM2 (0.50%) respectively. The highest diosgenin productivity was recorded in PR (14.95 Kg ha-1) followed by PEB (14.54 Kg ha-1), PM 7 (14.46 Kg ha-1) and PM (C)1 (13.90 Kg ha-1). The maximum seed yield was recorded in accession PM(C)1 (2.98 T ha-1) followed by PR (2.52 T ha-1). Fenugreek seeds, used as functional foods or pharmacology industry due to bioactive substance diosgenin, contribute nutraceutical and pharmacological attributes. Fenugreek may be a feasible alternative for diosgenin production because of lower production costs in a short growing period, ease of cultivation and consistent seed yield. Variation in genotype as well as plant species bioactive compound composition has been contradictory for their availability and commercial use. This study may be useful in selecting superior fenugreek genotypes for targeted pharmaceutical purposes and also for a breeding program, further facilitate the development of more reliable genotype for industrial use.
Open Access Original Research Article
The study was carried out to assess the distribution of soil micronutrients at Bakalori Irrigation Project, Zamfara State. Three local government areas; Maradun (Upper slope), Talata Mafara (Middle slope) and Bakura (Lower slope) were purposively sampled along Sokoto River. Three soil profile pits were dug, one in each local government of the study site, soil samples were collected from each horizon. Results showed that the soils were slightly acid to neutral with mean pH of 6.29, 6.60 and 6.62 for upper, middle and lower slope respectively. Organic carbon was low with mean values of 5.67 gkg-1, 2.79 gkg-1 and 4.72 gkg-1. CEC values were medium with the mean value of 10.76, 10.92 and 10.60 cmolkg-1. The results of available micronutrients showed that Fe was low with the mean values of 1.55 mgkg-1, 1.8 mgkg-1, and 1.83 mgkg-1, Mn was low to medium with the mean values of 0.70 mgkg-1, 0.85 mgkg-1 and 1.08 mgkg-1, Zn was medium with the mean values of 1.05 mgkg-1, 0.85-1 and 1.0 mgkg-1 and Cu was high with the mean values of 2.30 mgkg-1, 1.5 mgkg-1 and 2.58 mgkg-1 in all the three sites (upper, middle and lower slope). According to the USDA soil Taxonomy Classification System, soils of profile 1 (upper slope) were classified as Typic Endoaqualfs, soils profile 2 (middle slope) were classified as Aquic Haplustalfs and soils profile 3 (lower slope) were classified as Aquic Hapludalfs and the soils were locally named as Dosara, Matusgi and Birnin Tudu series for Maradun, Talata Mafara and Bakura soils respectively.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aims: Rural Savings and Credit Cooperatives are important financial institutions in remote villages of Ethiopia offering avenues for savings and credit for farmers and the poor. The aim of this study was to find out the determining factors of farmers’ cash-savings in rural cooperatives.
Study Design: The Study design followed was Ex-post facto Design through survey research.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was undertaken in Boloso Sore district (woreda) of the Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia. The study was held between January 2016 and May 2016.
Sample: From six cooperatives of the study district, 116 farmers who had been members of the cooperatives were selected as respondents.
Methodology: Primary and Secondary data were gathered respectively from farmers and district government agencies respectively. The sample size was determined using Yamane formula. The primary data yielded quantitative information on average per capita annual amount of cash-savings by farmers (dependent variable). Similarly, data was gathered on 13 possible determining factors (variables) to explore their regression over the Annual per capita Cash-savings (Dependent variable). Multiple Linear regression technique was deployed to find out the strength of relationship between independent variables and the dependent variable.
Results: Descriptive statistics of the study showed that average per capita farmer annual saving in cooperatives was 297 ETB (USD 13). The parameter estimation of the linear regression model revealed that out of 13 variables tested, eight (8) were found to be significant at different probability levels. Size of land holdings, amount of on-farm income, amount of non-farm income, amount of loan, and access to training are positively and significantly related to the level of farmers’ average annual savings. On the other hand family size of respondent, total expenditure and credit beneficiary status of respondent was negatively and significantly related to the level of farmers’ average annual savings in cooperatives.
Conclusion: As anticipated, assets possessed by farmers and their income were found to enhance the per capita savings of farmers in cooperatives. Corollary to this finding was that those resource poor and income poor had difficulty is savings. The cooperatives may have to design different strategy for encouraging savings among them. Similarly, family size and expenditure were inversely related to savings, for obvious reasons. Thrift habit was recommended to be inculcated among farmers having large family size and expenditure. Training was proved to be a game changer in terms of ensuring higher farmers’ savings. The cooperative management could consider frequent cooperative training of farmers for mobilizing higher savings.
Open Access Review Article
The floriculture sector is growing in Ethiopia; currently, Ethiopia is the second largest rose exporter in Africa and the sixth in the world. The aim of this study is to review the Ethiopian floriculture industry and their impact on the environment. Flowers are produced in modern farms around Addis Ababa and in the Rift valley. Ethiopian floriculture industries currently produce a number of flowers; including rose, gypsophila, Hypericum, limonium, carnations, and chrysanthemum. Rose is the most widely produced flower spices. Despite the industry’s significant contribution to the national economy, many issues are raised by environmentalists’ that are related to the expansion of floriculture sector and the adverse effect of pesticides and chemical fertilizers, disposal of waste materials, and pollution of water bodies. Ethiopia has developed policies and legislation to protect the environment issues. However, there are some gaps in the implementation and governing of the regulatory framework of the floriculture sector. Moreover, the competition of current international market system can force farms to comply with environmental standards. With the expansion of the floriculture industry, there is a growing concern as to its adverse effect on the national environment; to achieve the above advantage, Fertilizer and pesticide management, organic cultivation, wastewater treatment and recycling and environmental audit have to be taken into consideration.