Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Wood- Based Enterprise in Gboko Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria

Ekhuemelo David Oriabure, Iorpenda Mtonya Andrew, Tembe Emmanuel Terzungwue

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/32055

The research investigated wood-based enterprises found in Gboko Local Government Area (LGA) of Benue State, Nigeria. 10 Council Wards were purposively sampled from 17 Council Wards. In each of the Council Ward, 5 wood-based enterprises were selected using Simple Random Sampling Techniques (SRS). 3 copies of questionnaire were administered in each wood-based enterprise selected making 15 questionnaire administered in each of the Council Ward. A sum of 150 copies of questionnaire were used in this study. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools. Results revealed that there were 439 wood-based enterprises in the ten sampled Council Wards. The wood-based enterprises were furniture (23.5%), charcoal (20.3%), casket making (11.8%), farm tools making (6.6%), timber sheds (0.5%), wooden drum making (2.3%), mortar/pestle carving (5.7%) and fuel wood (29.4%) respectively. Result also revealed that buying (81.8%) was the highest source of wood. Most respondents made no effort in conserving the utilized tree species. Gmelina arborea and Tectona grandis were highly used for furniture, casket, and timber sheds, while Prosopis africana, Burkea africana, and Vitelleria paradoxa were highly used for charcoal production. Species preferred for carving (farm tool, mortar/pestle and wooden drum) includes Acacia nilotica, Prosopis africana and Khaya senegalensis. Firewood sale (29.4%) was found to be the most common wood-based enterprise. The study therefore shows that wood-based enterprise ease unemployment and act as source of additional income to farmers in the study area. Prosopis africana was identified as the most promising forest species particularly for wood-charcoal making in Gboko LGA. However, effective measures are recommended for establishing large-scale forest plantation in order to promote sustainable consumption practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Broiler Chickens Fed Graded Dietary Levels of Rice Milling Residue as a Fibre Source

J. A. Olusiyi, R. J. Wafar

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/31881

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth  performance of broilers fed dietary levels of rice milling residue (RMR) as a replacement of wheat offal (WO), as a fibre source in broiler diet. Three hundred (300) day old chicks were used for the experiment in a completely randomized design (CRD) for eight (8) weeks. The birds were randomly allotted to five (5) dietary treatments of sixty (60) chicks and replicated three (3) times with twenty (20) chicks per replicate. Five (5) treatment diets were formulated in which rice milling residue (RMR) was included to replace wheat offal (WO) at the levels of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% representing T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively. The result of the growth performance showed that, the average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily weight gained (ADWG) were not significantly different (P>0.05) across treatment groups except feed conversion ratio (FCR). Birds fed T1, T2, T3 and T5 recorded Superior FCR. ADWG ranged from 31.31 g (T1) to 32.82 (T3). Birds on T3 diet recorded higher feed intake of 130.15 g while the least was observed in T1 (116.82 g). It was concluded that rice milling residue (RMR) can completely replace wheat offal without any detrimental effect on growth performance of broilers chickens.

Open Access Original Research Article

On Improving Seed Germination and Seedling Growth in Rice under Minimal Soil Salinity

Badar- uz-Zaman, Arshad Ali, Imdad Ali Mahmood, Muhammad Suhaib, Muhammad Arshad Ullah, Muhammad Ishaq

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/32183

Aims: It was assumed that two- way approach i.e. nutrient-priming with potassium salt of the seeds and later on ammonium sulphate application may be binary beneficial for growth of rice besides evidencing genetic variability under salt stress

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in Complete Randomized Design with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in laboratory and glass house of Soil Salinity Research Programme of Land Resources Research Institute at National Agricultural research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan during the period from May to August, 2016.

Methodology: Seeds of Oryza sativa (cv. KS-282 and BAS 385) were primed with potassium nitrate. In the second phase of the study, the primed seeds were raised in a minimal saline soil with ammonium sulphate nutrition gradually up to 150 mg Kg -1.

Results: Bas-385 was more responsive for mean germination time than KS-282. In Bas-385 and KS-282 germination was 100 and 90 percent. Germination rate index of Bas-385 was 16 percent higher than that of KS-282. Biomass of Bas-385 seedlings was higher than that of KS-282 with the treatments. In both the cultivars of rice, Na+/K+ ratio was in antagonistic relation R = (- 0.99) with the gradual increase in ammonium sulphate application. Potassium ion was accordant with sulphate ion and N concentration.  Bas-385 was more tolerant to KS-282 based on Na+/K+ ratio and bio mass.

Conclusion: BAS 385 (salt sensitive) superseded to KS-282 (salt tolerant) under minimal salt stress due to nutrient priming and then enhanced nutrition.  

Open Access Original Research Article

A Survey on Social Economic Status, Fish Processing and Packaging Methods of Female Fish Processors in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria

K. Omoruyi, T. Eronmhonbor

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/31673

The study was aimed at determining the social economic status, fish processing and packaging methods of female fish processors in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. One hundred and eighty well structured questionnaires were administered to the women fisher folks in three fish processing village (Ekehuan, Ikoro and Gelegele) reported to have fishing activities. The result showed that fish processors in the villages were dominated with married women (66.7%); 55.0% of these women have little formal education while those with no formal education were 26.7%. It was further revealed that 41.7% of the fish processors had been in the business for five to ten years. 90.2% of the women used cutting and staking as a method of processing while all the women agreed that they preserved their fish by re-smoking them.88.3% had lack of storage facilities as their major problem. The study also revealed that their major source of capital was from their spouse (60.0%), the major fish spp smoked was Clarias gariepinus (80.0%), source of water were from river and bore hole while majority packaged their smoked fish in basket with paper (56.7%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Ricinus communis Extracts as a Biopesticide for Nisotra gemella Control

Mvuenga Eden Mbelo, Lokadi Pierre Luhata

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/32274

The efficacy of the extracts of leaves of castor (Ricinus communis) on flea beetle (Nisotra gemella), ravaging sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa), was performed in the laboratory of Phytochemistry of the Faculty of Sciences (Loyola University of Congo). The insects were captured on the leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa in the field using plastic jars.

Toxicity tests were conducted in laboratory conditions in Petri dishes at a temperature of 28 ± 1°C. The results of the preliminary toxicity test of the total extracts showed a mortality of 100% for the petroleum ether extracts, 31.33% for the ethanolic extract, and 0% for the total aqueous extract, after 24 hours of exposure. The petroleum ether extracts was chosen for further investigations.

Different concentrations of the total  petroleum ether extract were applied on filter paper (1%: 0.53 ml / cm²; 0.1%: 0.05 ml / cm²; 0.05%: 0.03 ml / cm²) caused 100% mortality for the dose of 0.53 ml / cm² in the interval of  9 and 10 hours;  0.05 ml / cm² caused 100% mortality after 15 -16 hours. An interval of 19 to 20 hours was necessary to cause 100 % mortality using the concentration of 0.03 ml / cm². No mortality was recorded in control plates (petroleum ether).

The same doses were used to evaluate the repellent effect. It was observed a low insect                  activity with an average rate of 39.5%. The thin layer chromatography enabled the identification of 10 spots (petroleum ether and ethyl acetate/ 5:1) and 8 spots (Petroleum ether and ethyl               acetate/ 9:1).