Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Particle Size on Quality of Briquettes Produced from Sawdust of Daniella oliveiri and Gmelina arborea in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

Emmanuel Terzungwue Tembe, Evander Azeh, David Oriabure Ekhuemelo

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/32079

The effect of particle size on the quality of briquettes produced from sawdust of Daniella oliveiri and Gmelina arborea was determined using some properties such as Compressed and Relaxed Density, Shattered Index and Combustion properties of the briquettes produced. The sawdust samples were collected from Timber Market in Northbank Makurdi Benue State Nigeria, sundried for 7 days and sieved into three different sizes; 1.70 mm, 2.36 mm and 3.35 mm.  Starch binder was used in producing the briquettes in the proportion of 25% to 100 g of sawdust sample. The briquettes were produced in the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory of the University of Agriculture Makurdi. The experimental design was based on a 2 x 3 Factorial in Completely Randomised Design (CRD). Data was collected to determine Compressed Density at 0 minutes and relaxed Density at 30 minutes, 1 hour, 24 hours and 7 days: Shattered index and Combustion properties of the briquettes produced. The result showed a gradual reduction in compressed and relaxed density of briquettes as drying time increased from 0 minutes to 7 days. There was also an observed decrease in density as particle size of briquettes increased from 1.70 mm to 3.35 mm. The species densities did not show any significant differences, though Gmelina arborea recorded a higher relaxed density of 0.32 g/cm3 in 7 days. The effect of species and particle size were not significant on Shattered index, where as Gmelina arborea had a shattered resistance of 99.9% .There was no significant difference in the heating values of the briquettes produced from three particle sizes, but Gmelina arbore are corded a higher Specific heat of 4947.80 Kcal/kg compared with Daniella oliveiri with 4919.30 Kcal/kg. The assessment showed that particle size had no significant effect on the quality of briquettes produced from the two species. Therefore sawdust particles of Daniella olivieri and Gmelina arborea are suitable sources of material for briquettes production in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sunflower Seed-priming with Phosphate Salts and Seedling Growth under Salt Stress

Badar- uz-Zaman, Arshad Ali, Muhammad Akram, Imdad Ali Mahmood, Muhammad Arshadullah, Tauseef Tabassam

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/32360

Aims: It was assumed that halo-priming process under salinity stress may rely on phosphorus nutrient source. Nutrient priming of seeds of sunflower seeds may be beneficial for growth of seedlings under salt stress.

Study Design: Laid out the experiment in Complete Randomized Design, using NaCl @ 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 mM on prime seeds from two sources of phosphorus salts in quadruplication.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in laboratory of Soil Salinity Research Programme of Land Resources Research Institute at National Agricultural research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan during the period from July to September, 2016.

Methodology: Passed sunflower seeds through the priming process using two sources of phosphorus i.e. potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP). The seeds were then germinated and raised for seedlings establishment in hydroponics standard solution under salt stress (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 mM sodium chloride). 

Results: The germination parameters, i.e. germination percentage, mean germination time, rate of germination index and coefficient of germination improved significantly (P< 0.01) with KDP priming than that of ADP under salinity stress. Seedlings vigor index enhanced with KDP than ADP. Fresh mass (18 to 36 percent) and dry mass (14 to 24 percent) of the seedlings were higher with KDP. With increasing Na+, Ca2+ decreased. It was inferred that role of KDP source was prominent.

Conclusion: Consideration of KDP could be a valuable seed-priming approach for sunflower early germination and accelerative growth under salt stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Productivity, Energy Use Efficiency and Economics of Organic Scented Rice Cultivation in Sub-Humid Agroecosystem

A. Seal, R. Bera, R. Roy Chowdhury, K. Mukhopadhyay, S. Mukherjee

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/31361

The increasing demand for organic cereals especially indigenous scented rice varieties in the recent years has peaked farmers’ interest towards its organic production. However, the threat of crop loss under organic cultivation has been holding back large scale initiatives. Inhana Rational Farming (IRF) Technology has come up as a promising organic package of practice towards mitigating this drawback of organic production that too at an affordable economics. The present study was conducted to generate scientific information regarding organic scented rice cultivation (Oryza sativa var. ‘Gobindobhog’) utilizing this organic POP in terms of productivity, energy use efficiency and economics. The yield of scented rice cultivated using organic POP was found to be 18% higher than the conventionally grown ones. In terms of energy use efficiency as well, organic POP was calculated to be more efficient signifying the role of organic practice in sustainable agriculture. Net profitability of organic paddy increased up to 17% with a minimum premium price of 25%. This increased higher income opportunity from same unit of land was an added benefit apart from improved soil quality in general; under organic management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Divergence of Quantitative Traits in Brassica juncea L. Genotypes Based on Multivariate Analysis

Tahira Bibi, Awais Riaz, Tariq Mahmood, Muhammad Akhter, Zulqarnain Haider, Misbah Riaz

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/31449

Edible oil requirement of Pakistan is increasing every year due to growing population and per capita consumption. After cotton, rapeseed-mustard is the second most important source of edible oil in Pakistan, where it is cultivated under diverse agro-climatic regions. The present research was conducted at Oilseeds Research Institute, Faisalabad (Pakistan) to find out the genetic divergence among 10 genotypes of mustard (Brassica juncea L.) with three replications in RCBD design. Eight morphological characters were measured to find out superior genotype use as a donor parent in hybridization programs. The cluster analysis revealed to two clusters of genotypes on based similarity and difference in morphological trait. The first cluster comprises seven genotypes and second group consist of three genotypes. The result of dendrogram indicated that high genetic distance among the genotype in terms of studied traits. Day to maturity had significant highly positive correlation with plant height and days to flowering. Pod length had highly significant positive correlation with seeds per pods. Plant height had correlate significant positive with days of maturity and days to flowering that would have brought simultaneous improvement for these traits as a result of correlated response. The principal component analysis shows that PC1, PC2 and PC3 contribute 52.1%, 19.9% and 15.3% of total variation, respectively. Therefore, it is possible to utilize that genetic variation in selection and hybridization program to develop new or more productive Brassica varieties and to optimize donor parental lines.

Open Access Review Article

Contemporary Perspective of Drip Irrigation: A Review of Water Saving Crop Production

Shaikh Abdullah Al Mamun Hossain, Wang Lixue, Md. Ektear Uddin, Liu Dan, Liu Haisheng, Liu Siping

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/31865

Aims: The main focus of this paper was to review the present status and performance of drip irrigation system.

Place and Duration of Study: College of Water Conservancy, Shenyang Agricultural University, China. During March to July, 2016.

Methodology: This study compared drip irrigation with most common irrigation methods used for finding water-savings, efficient and sustainable agricultural production in arid and semi-arid regions on the basis available information.

Results: Increasing water demand in various sectors and inefficient water uses especially in agriculture, pose huge challenges in future water availability. Therefore, the future is seeking a more efficient method of water use. However, drip irrigation system is spreading rapidly all over the world as a water saving methods. Various types of crops grown under drip irrigation were compared with surface and sprinkler irrigation. Saline and reclaimed water application is also increasing alternatively as fresh water scarcity is increasing.

Conclusion: Review observation implies that, surface water irrigation will necessarily be reducing due to low efficiency and considerable conveyance losses.