Open Access Method Article

Analyses of Training Needs to Improve Job Performance Using Model Borich Need Assessment with Theory of Self-Efficacy

Saleh Jasim Mohammed, Man Norsida, Muktar Bashir Garba, Zidane Falah Hasan Al-Lahibi, Mohammed Sara Jasim

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/30708

This purpose of the study is to identify the training needs of Iraqi agricultural extension workers in three (3) provinces. The study includes a conceptual framework, analytical framework, description of the study area, sources and procedures for data collection. The statistical tools used for analyzing the data collected are descriptive analysis, ANOVA one way, T-test and Chi-square, correlation analysis, Multiple Linear Regressions and also used model Borich needs assessment for measurement training needs. The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between the training needs of respondents in agricultural extension work and social demographic factors. This study revealed a significant relationship between training needs and provinces (P-value = 0.029), marital status (P-value = 0.007), number of training courses attended (P-value = 0.149), location of work (P-value = 0.007), training (X2 P-value = 0.043) and experience. Conversely, the relationship between training needs and specialization, age, gender, education level, origin, background of the family and experience in farming were found to be insignificant. T-test and Chi-Square statistical analyses were used to analyze the relationship between training needs and gender, experience in farming, family background, origin, and training courses attended. ANOVA analysis was used to analyze the relationship between training needs and provinces, specialization, work location and marital status. In addition, correlation analysis was also used to determine the relationship between training needs and age, experience in agricultural extension, education level and a number of training courses attended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Enzymes and Combination of Enzymes on Apparent Metabolisable Energy Value of Wheat Offal with Chicken

A. Jimoh

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/31753

Aim: To quantify the increase in the metabolisable energy value of wheat offal supplemented with enzyme and enzyme cocktails and to investigate the complementary effect of enzymes used as cocktail.

Study Design: Completely randomized design was used with twenty four adult cockerels of similar weight (2.2 Kg) distributed into eight treatments with three replicates per treatment.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Production, University of Ilorin. The experiment lasted for three days (72 hours).

Methodology: Three enzymes (Xylanase, Multipurpose and phytase) were used individually, in pairwise combination and combination of the three enzymes while the treatment with no enzyme was the control. The birds were starved of feed for 21 hours prior to the commencement of the experiment. They were then intubated with the respective treatment. Feacal samples were collected over a period of 24 hours after intubation. The feacal samples were subjected to gross energy (GE) determination. Apparent metabolisable energy (AME) was then calculated.

Results: All enzyme treatments significantly (P=.05) increased the AME of wheat offal compared to the control. Among the three individual enzymes the multipurpose enzyme was significantly (P=.05) better than each of the other two while the effect of phytase was the least. There were complementary effects between the enzymes when used as cocktails. Cocktail of the three enzymes gave the significantly best (P=.05) effect on AME among the cocktails and among the treatments with enzymes. However effect of phytase in the cocktail was least compared to xylanase and multipurpose enzyme.

Conclusion: It was concluded that exogenous enzymes can be used to increase the calorific value of high fibre feed stuffs. Cocktail of two carbohydrases of different profile and activity is better than individual enzymes.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Structural Change for Cereals Demand in Ghana

Mohammed Tanko, Sebit Younis Mayek Deng, Theodore Nonvignon Dossou

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/32112

The reason behind this research is to examine the effects of Ghana participation in free trade on the changes in consumer preference for imported cereals of maize, rice, wheat and sorghum. The research provided empirical estimates of the extent of sensitivity of cereals scale change in the Ghanaian economy to changes in quantity demanded. The analyses used an Inverse Almost Ideal Demand System (IAIDS) model to remedy the study objectives due to its appropriateness in modelling the level of utility for commodities with fixed or exogenously determined short run supply as a results of trade restriction. The critical finding of the study is that, Ghana practice of a liberalised policy could indirectly effected the country structural change in demand for imported cereals commodities under study but the direction of change is heterogeneous among the different cereals goods. Also, while Ghanaians demand for imported cereals is inflexible, price response to changes in the quantity of imported rice, wheat and sorghum is much sensitive compared to maize. It is recommended to implement long run policy of price control measures if the consumption and supply importation are to control in Ghana.

Open Access Original Research Article

Direct and Residual Effects of Animal Manures on Soil Properties and Yield Components of Pepper (Capsicum annum L.) in an Ultisol of Southeast Nigeria

Otobong B. Iren, Ime D. Uwah, V. M. Vincent

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/31907

One of the ways of increasing soil nutrients and crop yield is by applying fertilizer which could be from inorganic or organic sources. Pot experiment was conducted at the screen house of the Teaching and Research Farm of Faculty of Agriculture, Akwa Ibom State University, Nigeria from March through October, 2015. The experiment was designed to assess the direct and residual effects of different types of animal manures on soil properties and yield of pepper. There were four animal manure sources (pig, poultry, goat, rabbit), each applied at 20 t/ha and a control (no amendment). The pots containing each 10 kg of soil were arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications. Six weeks old pepper seedlings were transplanted from the nursery to the potted soil. After the first planting, pepper seedlings were replanted (second planting) in each of the previously treated soils with no additional amendment. Results obtained showed that treatments applied significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased soil pH, organic matter, total N, available P, exchangeable Ca, Mg, ECEC and base saturation compared with control. Regardless of amendment, soil pH, available P, exchangeable bases, ECEC and base saturation decreased with residual time while organic matter and total N increased with residual time. Growth data of pepper collected at 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks after transplanting (WAT) were significant (P ≤ 0.05) compared with control in both planting. The highest fruit weights of 138.61 and 105.10 g/plant obtained from poultry manure treated plants in the first and residual planting, respectively were not significantly (P ≥ 0.05) higher than the fruit weights of 109.59 and 95.00 g/plant obtained from pig manure treated plants in the first and residual planting. Therefore, these animal manures are capable of sustaining the productivity of pepper in an acidic Ultisol of Akwa Ibom State.

Open Access Original Research Article

Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Farm-made and Commercial Tilapia Diets in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

F. A. Anani, T. N. N. Nortey

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/31937

Aims: To determine the apparent digestibility of gross nutrients in a farm-made tilapia grower diet, ARDECFEED and those of two commercial ones, RAANAN and COPPENS in Oreochromis niloticus with a view of establishing whether all the diets would be well utilized by O. niloticus, the most cultured fish in Ghana.

Study Design: Completely Randomized Design.

Place and Duration of Study: The Aquaculture Research and Development Centre (ARDEC), Akosombo, of Water Research Institute (WRI) of Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Ghana, in November, 2015.

Methodology: Each of the diets was finely milled separately and subsequently sieved. Exactly 0.5% of chromic oxide (Cr2O3) was incorporated into 99.5% of each diet type. Nine plastic tanks (about 0.10 m2 bottom area), each with 45.0 L total volume capacity, filled with 30.0 L of water. Aeration in the tanks was maintained by the insertion of air stones. Monosex male O. niloticus with mean weight 22.8 ± 2.1 g were randomly divided into three groups of 4 fish (three treatments in triplicate) and stocked in the tanks. The fish were fed twice a day (0900 and 1500 hours) at a rate of 6% of their body weight with the various diets for 20 days. Faeces were collected for about two weeks. An indirect method of measuring digestibility was used to calculate the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients of the diets.  

Results: There were significant differences (P < .05) in the ADCs of all the parameters in all the dietary treatments. The apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were high (> 65%) in all the diets. The digestibility of crude protein, crude lipid and carbohydrate ranged from 77.49 to 87.02%, 81.46 to 93.90% and 65.28 to 85.94% respectively.

Conclusion: All the diets can be well utilized by O. niloticus, hence they will be appropriate for commercial production of Nile tilapia.