Open Access Original Research Article

Diversity of Cyanobacteria in Chunkankadai Paddy Wetlands, Kanyakumari District, Tamilnadu, South India

V. Mary Kensa

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/31248

Algae are one of the major groups of soil microflora in agricultural lands. Among algae, the bluegreens are considered to be very valuable in agriculture. The role of them in soil fertility enhancement has been extensively studied worldwide. The Cyanobacteria (blue green algae) are a morphologically distinct group of oxygenic, photosynthetic organisms that inhabit terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.  Sustainable utilization of an organism for any human purpose depends on how successfully the ecology of the same is thoroughly understood. Chunkankadai is a unique tropical paddy-wetland. Ecology of blue-green-algae and the exact diversity of the same in the zone remained unexplored. A rich blue-green-algal diversity of 33 species, is observed in these paddy-fields. The species richness and diversity index showed positive correlation to crop seasons. Apart from the specific soil and climatic factors, the total number of blue green algal isolates showed positive correlation to total nitrogen and phosphorus in the soils. The results of this experiment revealed that addition of Cyanobacteria as biofertilizer had significant effects on yield attributes of rice and soil properties. Finally, it might be concluded that the documentation on Cyanobacteria may enhance the understanding of the nutrient status of the field and might be applied for sustainable agricultural practices by reducing the application of chemical fertilizer to avoid the appearance of non-nitrogen fixers in the soil that might compete with nitrogen fixers for nutrients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Phosphorus to Growth and Flowering of Golden Rod (Solidago sp.) as Influenced by Population Density

Farzana Islam, Md. Ruhul Amin, A. F. M. Jamal Uddin, M. D. A. Mollah, Md. Dulal Sarkar

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/30896

Aims: The present work was carried out to evaluate the response of phosphorus on regulating vegetative and floral characters of golden rod in relation with population density.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Horticultural Farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka during the period from May to October 2014.

Methodology: The experiment having two factors. First factor; population density which are D1 = 40 cm x 20 cm, D2 = 40 cm x 30 cm and D3 = 40 cm x 40 cm and, second factor; four levels of phosphorus viz. P0 =   Control (without P2O5 addition), P1 = 100 kg P2O5 per ha, P2 = 125 kg P2O5 per ha and P3 = 150 kg P2O5 per ha. Fertilizers were applied @ 130, 100, 5000 and as per treatment kg per ha for urea, MP, cowdung and TSP, respectively and, intercultural operations were furnished for proper growth and development of the crop.

Results: Population density and phosphorus levels showed significant variations with most of the parameters as well as the highest number of spike (752708 per ha) was in the closet spacing of 40 cm x 20 cm with 125 kg P2O5 per ha and the lowest (248958 per ha) in 40 cm x 40 cm spacing without P2O5.

Conclusion: Use of higher population density (125000 plants per ha) with 125 kg P2O5 per ha would be the best for growth and flowering of golden rod.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Profitability of Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp) Production in Central Agricultural Zone of Nasarawa State, Nigeria

A. A. Girei, U. Haruna, V. N. Osazuwa

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/30206

This study examines the profitability of pumpkin production in Nasarawa state, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to; determine the costs and returns associated with pumpkin production and identify the constraints associated with pumpkin production. Primary data and secondary information were used for the study. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and gross margin analysis. The results of the study revealed that the average total revenue obtained by the respondents was N102,122.6/ha, while the gross margin/ha was also estimated at N54,402.8/ha. The average net farm income was also determined at N35,902.2 and the net farm income per naira invested was calculated at N0.54 which shows that pumpkin production is profitable in the study area. The Benefit-cost ratio revealed a positive value (1.54) and it is greater than one and this confirmed the solvency of pumpkin business in the study area. The gross ratio, operating ratio and fixed ratio were calculated to be 0.65, 0.47 and 0.18 respectively and all were as well found to be positive and less than one. Major constraints identified includes; inadequate extension services (12.0%).Pest and disease infestation (10.0%),high cost of labour (9.3%), and inadequate access to credit facilities (8.6%). It is recommended that young and educated people should be advice and encouraged to take up pumpkin production as a profitable venture that is capable of generating employment to the teeming youths in the area. Government should encourage pumpkin farmers through provision of affordable and accessible credit facilities to boost scale of production and Research institutions should be encouraged to develop technologies that will minimize the menace of pests and disease infestation in pumpkin production. Adequate and well trained extension agents should be made available to provide supports to the farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

First Report of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) Disease in Commercial Citrus Orchards in Sudan

Mohamed Yousif A. Abubaker, Siddig M. Elhassan, Awadalla I. A. Irabi

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/31045

Three extensive surveys and laboratory tests were conducted to detect and determine the distribution of Citrus tristeza closterovirus (CTV) in the main citrus groves in six states along the Blue Nile (Gezira and Sinnar states) and the River Nile (Khartoum, River Nile, and Northern states) in addition to Kassala state in eastern Sudan. Citrus tristeza virus was detected as an emerging disease of citrus for the first time in Sudan based on visual external symptoms on foliage and fruits and on characteristic internal symptoms on bark and wood at the bud union region of affected citrus trees. The occurrence of CTV was confirmed by direct tissue blot immunoassay (DTBIA) and DAS ELIASA serological tests. It was naturally prevalent in all the surveyed areas infecting grapefruit, orange, lime and mandarin revealing an overall incidence of 37%. Tristeza was found to be more widely spread (45-65%) in the states along the River Nile compared to those along the Blue Nile and in the east (10-30%). In comparison, DTBIA with monoclonal antibodies 3DF1+3CA5 was more efficient in detecting CTV than DAS-ELISA which was only successfully detecting the virus in few fresh samples but not from dried citrus samples.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Jew’s Mallow (Corchorus olitorius L.) to Organic Manures in the Southern Guinea Savanna Agroecological Zone of Nigeria

Y. A. Garjila, J. O. Shiyam, Y. Augustine

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2017/31265

Field trials were conducted in 2014 and 2015 cropping seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm of Crop Science Department of the Taraba State College of Agriculture, Jalingo (Latitude 80° 50N and Longitude 11° 50” E) to determine the response of Jew’s mallow (Corchorus olitorius (L.) to different types of organic manures. Treatments evaluated consisted of 3.0 t/ha each of four types of organic manures viz: poultry droppings, cow dung, sheep manure and goat manure with zero manure as control. Each treatment was replicated four times and laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Data collected included plant height, leaf length and width, and leaves yield/ha. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and means difference were separated using least significance difference (LSD) at p=0.05 Result obtained indicated that organic manures improved the performance of Jew’s mallow with poultry manure having superior effect over other types of manures. Plants under this treatment were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) tallest (85.0/84.8 cm) with more leaves and produced correspondingly highest fresh leaf yield of 15,666.7 and 15,623.2 kg/ha in 2014 and 2015 cropping seasons, respectively. Application of poultry manure at 3.0 t/ha could be adopted to maximize the productivity of Corchorus olitorius for enhanced yield benefit to farmers in the study area.