Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Biochar on Macronutrients Release and Plant Growth on Degraded Soil of Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

E. Ndor, J. I. Ogara, D. A. Bako, J. A. Osuagbalande

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2016/30926

This study consisted of laboratory incubation and pot experimentation. Laboratory incubation was conducted at the Chemistry Laboratory, College of Agriculture, Lafia. The pot experimentation was done in the screen house of faculty of Agriculture, Nasarawa State University Lafia campus during the dry season of 2015 to assess weekly macronutrients (NPK) release in soil amended with locally produced sawdust and rice husk biochar and the growth and nutrient uptake of maize grown on the same soil. The experimental design used was complete randomized design (CRD) and the treatments consisted of three levels of rice and sawdust biochar: 0, 60, 120 g factorially combined to form 9 treatments. The result showed that, in the first week of incubation, 120 g of rice husk and sawdust biochar produced the highest levels of pH (6.58 and 6.69), Nitrogen (0.56 gkg-1 and 0.48 gkg-1), available phosphorus (27.61 mgkg-1 and 27.73 mgkg-1) and potassium (0.26 cmolkg-1 and 0.23 cmolkg-1) respectively. However, the second week of incubation recorded a reduction in nitrogen (0.39 gkg-1 and 0.44 gkg-1) released with application rates of 120 g of both rice husk and sawdust biochars respectively. There was increased in available phosphorus (35.00 mgkg-1 and 37.20 mgkg-1) and potassium (0.26 cmolkg-1and 0.23 cmolkg-1) and soil pH (6.73 and 6.88) respectively in the second week. In the third week of incubation, there was a continuous decline in soil N (0.35 gkg-1 and 0.36 gkg-1) but, P. K and soil pH consistently showed an increase. Rice husk and sawdust biochar applied at 120 g was significantly (p<0.05)  higher in a number of leaves (7.00 and 8.00); growth height (50.73 cm and 20.67 cm); fresh weight (102.82 g and 26.18 g); dry weight (15.11 g and 2.69 g) respectively. N P and K uptake by maize plants were also significantly (P<0.05) influenced by rice husk biochar application. 120 g of rice husk biochar produced the highest value of maize uptake of N (2.51 gkg-1); P (62.62 mgkg-1) and K (4.28 cmolkg-1). Then, 120 g of saw dust biochar produced maize that took in the highest values of N (3.70 gkg-1); P (59.40 mgkg-1) and K (4.00 cmolkg-1).

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Chemical and Botanicals against Cercospora Leaf Spot (CLS) of Mungbean

Eva Nousraat, Juel Datta, Rakibul Hasan, Asad- Ud-Doullah, Aziz HM Mahfuzul Haque

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2016/30625

Cercospora leaf spot is one of the major disease in Bangladesh and may be considered as one of the chief limiting factors where mungbean is cultivated. Advancement in resistant varieties are the positive approach for controlling the disease while several protective fungicides effectively control the disease. But sustainable resistance could not be activated so far. We conducted this experiment to know the effects of botanicals and chemicals on Cercospora leaf spot disease of mungbean and direct effects on mungbean yield. A high yielding, disease tolerant variety (BARI mung-4) was used as experimental sample and treatment plots were set in Sylhet in 2014. Total seven different treatments were applied randomly. Different variation in germination of mungbean seeds in the field were found. Minimum disease incidence (5.87%) and disease severity (2.30%) were found in combined treatment of Bavistin 50WP+Secure 600WP (T5) and gave better response in yield (1482.67 kg/ha). The result of the present study suggest that the integrated use of these treatments effectively minimize the incidence and severity of Cercospora leaf spot, as well as increase its yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Field Assessment of the Potential Role of Fusarium Species in the Pathogenesis of Coffee Wilt Disease in Democratic Republic of Congo

P. Tshilenge-Djim, M. Muengula-Manyi, K. Kingunza-Mawanga, A. Ngombo-Nzokwani, L. Tshilenge-Lukanda, A. Kalonji-Mbuyi

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2016/31052

Aim: To determine the probable role of 3 species of Fusarium (F. falciforme, F. solani and                       F. stilboides) in the pathogenesis of Coffee Wilt Disease (CWD).

Study Design: The field trial was performed using a Randomized Completed Block Design (RCBD) replicates three times.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conduct in the Experimental Garden of Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Kinshasa in Democratic Republic of Congo, between November 2005 and February 2006.

Methodology: Four Fusarium species (F. falciforme, F. solani, F. stilboides and F. xylarioides) were inoculated alone, or the first three strains were inoculated in combination with F. xylarioides in coffee seedlings 10 months old. Observations were focused on the time of expression of main CWD symptoms, the rate of each symptom observed, and the presence of each pathogen in dead woods of inoculated seedlings.  

Results: Results obtained showed that all Fusarium species induced main symptoms of CWD at varying moment and degrees. Chronologically, leaf yellowing appeared an average 25 dai, followed by leaf browning (46 dai), leaf drying (61 dai), mortality (75 dai) and defoliation (77 dai). Significant differences (P = .05) were observed between treatments considered. All Fusarium induced seedlings mortality and were isolated in dead woods at 1 – 4 cm from the point of inoculation. In general, the search of synergistic interaction between Fusarium spp. inoculated in combination with F. xylarioides showed enhanced ability to induce various symptoms of CWD when species are used together. 

Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that CWD could be reconsidered as a parasitic complex, and in natural conditions all Fusarium species used present a danger for coffee growing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Fungal Flora and Aflotoxins from the Ground Nuts Collected from Various Regions of Warangal District

Murali Krishna Thupurani, Rajender Vadluri, Epur Manoj Kumar Reddy, B. S. Anuradha

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2016/28906

Aims: The aim of the current study is to screen about twenty three ground nut samples for the identification and detection of mycotoxin-producing fungi and type of mycotoxin.

Study Design: The present investigation was designed to identify the type of mycotoxin in the ground nut samples collected from various regions of Warangal district of Telangana State, India.

Place and Duration of Study: Mahabubabad, Nekkonda, Thorrur, Palakurty, Jangon etc., of Warangal district, 2 years; from July 2014 to July 2016.

Methodology: The study includes: analysis of moisture content M.C. mycological analysis, isolation of sample-borne mycoflora, isolation of sample surface mycoflora, standard dilution plate, identification of the fungal genera, determination of potential toxigenic fungi using DRBC test, aflatoxin extraction and analysis by ELISA.

Results: The M.C. of samples collected during wet season from Mahabubabad, Nekkonda, Thorrur, Palakurty, Jangon of different storage systems ranged between 13.1 – 17.0%, 17.7%, 12.8%, 15.4%, 14.1%, 9.0%, 12.5%, 10.6%, respectively. The freshly harvested ground samples showed highest M.C. percentage with 36.6%. Using Czapek Dox Agar (CDA) media we have isolated six fungal genera containing fourteen species from sterilized and unsterilized samples. Isolated genera were Aspergillus spp. Cladospoium sp., Fusarium sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium spp. and yeasts and the fourteen species were isolated from the surface of the collected samples. The commonly observed species were R. stolonifer, A. candidus, A. flavus, A. tamarii,         A. wentii, A. ochraceus, A. niger, P. fellutanum, P. citrinum, A. ochraceus, Yeast, F. equiseti,            P. aethiopicum. The identification and the total Colony Forming Units (CFU) of isolated fungi were performed using standard plate technique. The total enumerated CFU of isolated fungi from the 23 collections was (114×103). High fungal contamination was observed in the sample kadiri-2 followed by Jyoti and JM-3. Detection of toxogenic fungi using DRBC media tested positive for several fungal species. Aflotoxin analysis using ELISA showed that Kadiri-2 (MK-374), Jyoti and JM-3 produced 8.6, 6.4, 7.0, ppb of aflatoxin content.

Conclusion: Using Czapek Dox Agar (CDA) six fungal genera comprising fourteen fungal species were isolated from sterilized and unsterilized samples. Identification and estimation of the total Colony Forming Units (CFU) of fungi was carried out using standard plate technique. The total enumeration of isolated fungi from the 23 collections was (114×103) CFU. Aflotoxin analysis using ELISA showed that the concentrations of aflatoxin in the samples are low and below permitted limits.

Open Access Review Article

Driving Sustainable Intensification System on Cocoa Farming Practices

Julian Witjaksono, Musyadik .

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2016/29623

Agricultural development needs to pay more attention in the future in order to meet the rising demand of food due to the growing population rapidly in the world. On the other hand, increasing production is needed and land expansion will be considered if farm gate want to produce more food. Moreover, farming practices particulary in developing countries with 500 million smallholders in small-scale and poor-resource farmers are facing changing in climate wich has affected farm productivity. In the past, farming practices in developing countries has been pushed into intensification system without any concerns about environmental impacts. Thus, production has increased but resulting in land degradation, soil erosion, increasing GHG emission, and less ecosystem services. On the other word, this farming practices are not sustainable. Sustainable intensification is the new paradigma in farming practices with considering environmental impact without destruction the ecosystem to produce more food from the output use. This article discussed the potential benefits of future farming practices by performing a systematic review from body evidences elabotaring on sustainable intensification. Finally, this paper is intended to support the respective countries and the sectors in developing strategies for sustainable intensification. In summary, based on the study literature we found that cocoa agroforestry system combine with the indigenous technology suggest will be more sustainable for cocoa farming system.