Open Access Minireview Article

Genetic Improvement of Rice in Nigeria for Enhanced Yeild and Grain Quality - A Review

Abiwon Babatunde Oluwaseyi, Dambaba Nehemmiah, Salihu Bolaji Zuluqurineen

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2016/28675

The development of rice with high yield and grain quality is one of the main goals of rice breeding programs all over the world. In Nigeria, Rice breeders have been successful in improving the crop for different characteristics, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. An example of rice variety developed for early maturity, high grain yield and quality is FARO 44(Sipi-692033), for tolerance to iron toxicity is FARO 52(WITA 4), for tolerance to African Rice Gall Midge is UPIA 2 (IWA 2) amongst others. A number of breeding methods such as Conventional Hybridization, Recurrent Selection, and Mutation breeding and Varietal Introduction from other countries can be used to create variability in rice to make improvement possible. Different research institutes in Nigeria, in collaboration with international NGOs have been intensifying efforts to improve the crop for different characteristics particularly for grain quality and high yield, adaptable to the country’s varying ecology. The development and introduction of tools of biotechnology into plant breeding have enhanced the breeding capacity of breeders, but these tools have not been fully integrated into rice breeding programs in the country. This paper highlights different breeding methods that can be used to develop new rice varieties, modify or improve already existing ones. Recommendations are also given in the direction of future research for enhancement of rice in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization and Documentation of Factors Contributing to Production and Consumption of African Leafy Vegetables (ALVs) in Kiambu and Kirinyaga Counties in Kenya

Munene Rozy, Changamu Evans, Korir Nicholas, P. Gweyi-Onyango Joseph

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2016/28734

The aim of the study was to evaluate popular ALVs in two counties; i.e. Kiambu and Kirinyaga counties in Kenya.  Focus group discussion (FGD) and a field survey were employed. The study was carried out in the two counties in Central Kenya between January and February; 2015.  Purposive sampling method was used where 67 respondents (37 and 30) Kiambu and Kirinyaga counties respectively; were interviewed. One FGD was carried out in each county.  The findings indicated that; about seven ALVs were cultivated and consumed in the two counties. Vegetable amaranth and nightshade were the most dominant indigenous vegetables in both counties (83.8% and 81.1%) in Kiambu and (93.3% and 83.3%) in Kirinyaga respectively. These were followed by, spider plants, pumpkin leaves, cow peas leaves and jute mallow at 54.1%, 35.1% 32.4% and 21.6% respectively in Kiambu and 30%, 56.7%, 30% and 6.7% in Kirinyaga respectively.  Furthermore, large number of farmers (59% and 66.7%) in Kiambu and Kirinyaga respectively grew ALVs for nutrition or health benefit in both counties. The finding also revealed that over 50% of the respondents in both counties cultivated ALVs both for domestic and commercial purposes.

Conclusion: Two ALVs species (Amaranthus and Solanum spp) were most popular in the studied region. However a large diversity of cultivated and consumed ALVs seems to exist in Central Kenya. Production and utilization of the vegetables for nutrition and health benefit was major incentive to continual cultivation of ALVs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Mixing Biogas Liquid Manure with Soil on Water Infiltration under Flood Irrigation System

Mansour H. El-Bakhshwan, Abdulwahed M. Aboukarima, Samy G. Hemeda

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2016/28768

Biogas liquid manure is byproduct from biogas production projects. It is free from insects, flies, mosquitoes. Since the biogas projects are currently deployed in Egypt and the trend towards increased use, so the mixing such manure with soil can affect the water infiltration into the soil.  The study assessed the contributions of biogas liquid manure on water infiltration of a sandy clay loam soil when using three water qualities. The biogas liquid manure was applied at rates of 0, 2, 4 and 6 lit/m2.The double-ring infiltrometer was used to get infiltration data. An electronic device was utilized to note the time the water begins to infiltrate. The results showed that the rate of biogas liquid manure and water quality had a significant effect on cumulative infiltration. The range of cumulative infiltration after 180 min was varied from 128 mm to 490 mm. The cumulative infiltration significantly decreases with the increasing of biogas liquid manure rate at any of water quality. The constants of the Kostiakov infiltration equation were influenced by biogas liquid manure and water quality. The highest constant () of 14.6832 was observed for application rate of 0 lit/m2 biogas liquid manure to the soil and the lowest constant () of 7.5895 was observed for application rate of 6 lit/m2.The highest constant () of 0.7217 was observed for application rate of 0 lit/m2 of biogas liquid manure to the soil and the lowest constant () of 0.4728 was observed for application rate of 6 lit/m2 biogas liquid manure to the soil. A multiple linear regression was employed to estimate final cumulative infiltration after 180 min based on the rate of biogas liquid manure and sodium adsorption ratio of used water with coefficient of determination of 0.9183. Moreover, a regression model was developed to estimate the cumulative infiltration at any time up to 180 min based on biogas liquid manure application rate and sodium adsorption ratio of water.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Storage Conditions of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) Bagged Pics Containing Biopesticide (Lippia multiflora) Leaves by Factorial Design in Cote d’Ivoire

Godi Henri Marius Biego, Adama Coulibaly

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2016/28278

This study aims to optimize storage conditions of two cowpea varieties grains in PICS bags containing leaves of Lippia multiflora. It was to assess, through a full factorial design, the effect of three factors (variety, biopesticide dose, storage duration) on the merchantability (moisture, water activity, mass loss, damages) and contamination levels of ochratoxin A (OTA), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and total aflatoxins (AFT) of cowpea grains during 8 months. The grains were collected from producers of the Loh-Djiboua region (5°50 'North 5°22' West). After the hulling, the grains have not undergone any treatment were sent to the laboratory for storage. The lots treated with leaves Lippia multiflora recorded lower values than those of control groups whatever the parameter studied. Indeed, the damages of grains are 7.60±0.16% and 39.66±1.77% respectively for the treated and control groups. Concerning mycotoxins, treated groups have concentrations of 4.01±0.06 µg/kg and 1.14±0.01 µg/kg respectively for OTA and AFB1. As against untreated groups have concentrations of 22.50±0.87 µg/kg and 8.41±0.48 µg/kg respectively for OTA and AFB1. These results reflect an action of leaves on insect activity and toxigenic molds. The results of full factorial design indicate that action of leaves of Lippia multiflora is independent the cowpea variety conserved. Furthermore, the mathematical model derived from this plan allows a prediction of values of parameters studied with Pearson coefficients (R2) equal to 0.99. Thus, the treatment with leaves Lippia multiflora of stock of cowpea has a positive impact on conservation of merchant and health quality of grains with a persistence up to 8 months. This inexpensive and easy to use treatment should be vulgarized among farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Sachet Water and Plastic Bottle Waste on Agricultural Land in the Ada East District of Ghana

Ayisi Daniel Nyarko, Kumi John Adu

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2016/28461

The main aim of this research was to create awareness on the negative effects that indiscriminate disposal of sachets and plastic bottle waste have on the agricultural land at Ada East district of Ghana.

The study was conducted in the Ada East district of Ghana., between February 2015 and July 2015.

Simple random sampling techniques were used to sample 50 households out of 350 households in the study area. The study used questionnaires and interviews. Structured questionnaires were prepared to generate primary data from the respondents. Interviews with key informants were additional means used to elicit primary data. Secondary data were also studied, acquired from different reports, published documents from the internet and data from the Department of Agriculture. The collected filled questionnaires were tabulated and analyzed with the help of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. (SPSS). It was observed that 56% of the population were female, and 44% had not received any formal education. The study identified that 54% of the population were farmers. It was further revealed that 76% of the respondents consumed sachet water as it served as the main sources of drinking water in the area. The daily water intake in the area was 1 litre and this was practiced by 56% of the population. It was also revealed that plastic waste generated in the area has little or no alternative uses. The area lacked provisions for waste management; therefore 44% of the respondents littered the plastic waste on the environment.

The absence of public education, waste management legislation and organized waste management services in the area contributed to the increased indiscriminate littering of waste on the environment and affected agricultural land, resulting in low productivity in the area.

It was recommended that there should be public education on plastic waste management, investment in recycling of plastic waste, and a premium on plastic waste collection and waste bins should be made available for waste collection in public places.