Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Tillage on Agro-morphological Parameters and Yield of Cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) in Abongoua, East-Central Côte d'Ivoire

N’ganzoua Kouamé René, N’dakou Koua Ambroise, Kouame Amany Guillaume, Konate Zoumana, Bakayoko Sidiky

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2021/v14i430132

The objective of this work is to improve the production and yield of cassava cultivated by tillage. The experiment was conducted in the field for 13 months (June 2019-july 2020) in Abongoua in the department of Bongouanou (East-central Côte d'Ivoire). After the cleaning of a 900 m2 surface of a fallow of more than 5 years, and cleared of all plant debris, soil samples were taken with an auger in the 40 cm surface in each corner and in the center of the experimental plot to constitute the composite sample for laboratory analysis. The trials were conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replicates in which four elementary plots were distributed. Three treatments T1 (tilled soil), T2 (mounded soil) and T3 (ridged soil) compared to a control treatment T0 (no-till soil) were applied in each microplot. The cuttings were directly sown at a rate of 12 cuttings per treatment. The data of the different parameters collected underwent an analysis of variance (ANOVA) performed with SAS software version 9.4 and the means were separated using the Newman and Keuls test at the 5% probability threshold. The results showed an acidic soil with a sandy texture and a good supply of nutrients, particularly major elements, trace elements and clay-humus complex. Good growth and development of agro-morphological parameters as well as yield were obtained with treatments T3 (ridged soil), T2 (mounded soil) and T1 (tilled soil) in decreasing order of importance compared to the control treatment (T0). In conclusion, the study clearly showed that the type of tillage, particularly the ridged tillage technique, improves the agro morphological parameters, productivity and yield of cassava. What we recommend to farmers for a good yield of cassava in the area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Decomposition of Plantain Peel Powder and Assessment of its Effects on Soil Physical and Chemical Characteristics

Alla Kouadio Théodore, Gbeze Kpata Hermann Roland, Bomisso Edson Lezin

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 11-24
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2021/v14i430133

This study aims at assessing the effects of plantain (Musa paradisiaca) peel powder on soil physical and chemical properties in the context of sustainable yield management. The experiment took place in the laboratory of plant physiology of the University Félix Houphouët Boigny from July to November 2020. Three designs were set up. Design 1 consisted of 20 g of plantain peel powder added to a 2-cm thick layer of sea sand. Design 2 consisted of 5 g of plantain peel powder added to 250 g of sea sand. Design 3 consisted of a homogeneous mixture of 100 g of peel powder and 200 g of rhizospheric tomato or plantain soil. The designs were regularly watered with distilled water. In the first two designs, the plantain peel powder was added according to two methods. These included surface incorporation and deep incorporation. The experiment allowed us to characterize peel powder decomposition and assess its effects on soil physicochemical parameters. The physico-chemical characteristics of the soils were subjected to a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA 1). STATICA 7.1 software was used to perform all the analyses. Analysis of the results showed that the incorporation method does not influence peel powder decomposition. This decomposition is followed by the release of colored elements. Water retention capacity as well as particle size were improved. The results showed that plantain peel powder is an important source of minerals mainly phosphorus and potassium. It emerges from this study that plantain peel could be a good organic fertilizer for profitable and environmentally friendly agriculture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Varimax Rotated Principal Component Analysis of Productive Traits in Nigeria Indigenous Cattle Raised under Semi-Intensive Management System

D. S. Bunjah Umar, R. O. Okeke, A. C. Nwanmmo, M. O. Bello, O. G. Allen, O. O. Adeniyi, J. M. Madu, L. N. Panshak, D. M. Allen

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 25-29
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2021/v14i430134

The objectives of this study were to quantify the production traits using principal component analysis in Bunaji and Gudali cattle. Morphological traits of Body weight (Kg); BL: Body Length (Cm); HW: Height at withers (cm); CW: Chest width (cm); HG: Heart Girth (cm); Rumwi: Rump width (cm); TL: Teat Length (cm); RUH: Rear Udder Height (cm); UC: Udder Circumference (cm) and lactation traits of TY: Total Yield (Litres); ADY: Average Daily Yield (Litres/day) and LL: Lactation Length (days) were measured. To find the traits that were clustered together, data were fed to the principal component matrix of J.M.P genomics statistical software. In general, communalities varied from 0.32 to 0.91, and the proportion of variance accounted for by variables was 48 percent Bunaji, 0.31 to 0.99 for communalities, and 58 percent in Gudali cows. The information on principal component analysis will facilitate their efficient use in breeding programs for genetic gain and genetic improvement programs in indigenous Nigeria cattle.

Open Access Original Research Article

Landless Urban Rooftop Farming Context of Soilless Culture for Microbe Frees Cultivation, Roof Security and Environmental Sustainability

Kartik Chandra Sahu, Mahendra Kumar Satapathy

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 30-41
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2021/v14i430136

Landless rooftop farming is an artificial cultivation on the roof which uses organic solid or liquid media called solution culture “media culture” or water culture “hydroponics”. Media culture and hydroponics has been used sporadically throughout the world in rooftop and tissue culture also has been used  the world as commercial means of growing both food and ornamental plants. It supplies fresh vegetables in countries with limited arable land as well as in small countries with large populations. Plants grown by hydroponics have concisely superior quality, high yield, rapid harvest, and high content, at present it is used widely in research facilities as a technique for studying plant nutrition. Gravel or sand is sometimes used in soilless systems to provide plant support, and retain some nutrients and water. The retention and water can be for their improvement through the used materials, but others  such as rice hulls, bagasse, sedge peat, and sawdust are used sometime as constituents in soilless mixture straw bales have been used as the growing medium in England and Canada. Rockwool (porous stone fiber) is used in Europe. Since the major constituent of the media in artificial growing systems may be solid or liquid, it is appropriate to use the term soil culture in reference to this general type of growing system and reserve the term hydroponics for those in which water is the principal constituent. Soilless organic media preparation and use has a tremendous effect in land less culture. It is basically used in Rooftop vegetable cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of the Effects of Climate Change on Maize Production in Mali

Abdoulaye Maïga, Moussa Bathily, Amadou Bamba, Issoufou Soumaïla Mouleye, Mamadi Sissako Nimaga

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 42-52
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2021/v14i430137

The objective of this paper is to analyze the effects of climate change on maize production in Mali during the period 1990-2020. The unit root test (augmented Dickey-Fuller) was used to check the order of integration between the variables in the study. The ARDL (autoregressive distributed lag) approach to cointegration limits is applied to assess the association between the study variables with evidence of a long-term relationship. The unit root test estimates confirm that all variables are stationary at the combination of I(0) and I(1). The results show that precipitation and temperature in June and July have a negative and highly significant effect on maize production in both the short and long term analyses. Among other determinants, the area of land devoted to maize crops and GDP per capita have a positive effect on production. The estimated coefficient on the error correction term is also highly also highly significant As Mali's population grows, in the coming decades the country will face food security challenges. Possible initiatives are needed to configure the Malian government to address the negative effects of climate change on agriculture and ensure adequate food for the growing population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Agromorphological Determinants of the Spread of the Bacterial Disease in Orchards of the Main Mango-Producing Regions in Côte d'Ivoire

Brou Kouassi Guy, Doumbouya Mohamed, Oro Zokou Franck, Doga Dabé, Yapo N'guéssan Patrick, Kouassi Koffi II Nazaire, Dogbo Denezon Odette

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 53-62
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2021/v14i430138

The use of agroecological practices for the management of phytosanitary problems has become a major issue in the context of sustainable development. It is with this in mind that this study was initiated in the regions of Bagoué, Poro and Tchologo. This study consisted of investigating the determinants likely to promote the spread of the bacterial disease in 720 mango trees of the Kent variety distributed in 20 orchards in the regions of Poro, Tchologo and Bagoué. During this study, the incidence and severity of bacterial disease on leaves and fruits (IsFe, IsFr, IcFe, IcFr) as well as agromorphological parameters such as East-West and North-South spans, total leaf area, fruit load, trunk circumference, total height and number of main branches (En EO and NS, SFT, ChFr, CirTr, HaTr and RamP) were measured. The performance of the pearson correlation test revealed that spans (N-S and E-O), HaTr, SFT and ChFr are the 4 agromorphological determinants that promote the spread of bacteriosis in orchards of the three (3) regions. The synthesis of the results of the ACP and the CAH supplemented by a multivariate analysis (MANOVA) made it possible to structure the mango orchards into three (3) homogeneous groups. Group 1 orchards (VB4, VB8, VS1, VF5, VK1, VB7, VF2 and VK2) expressed the lowest severity indices and the incidence of bacteriosis on the leaves (respectively 15.21 ± 8.87% ; 12.21 ± 6.54%) and fruits (respectively 13.11 ± 4.75%; 10.40 ± 2.93%). These orchards featured mango trees with medium trunk circumferences (99.14 ± 17.24 cm), medium trunk heights (145.29 ± 7.24 cm) and smallest spans (6.85 ± 1, 13 m for the NS span and 6.79 ± 1.18 m for the EO span) and total leaf area (15.61 ± 0.06 cm). These results could help develop an agroecological control strategy for the sustainable management of bacterial disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Downward Tapping Delay on Agronomic Parameters of Upward Tapping Rubber Trees

Moro Affia Perpétue, Kouakou N’ guessan Kan Pulchérie, Diarassouba Moussa, Adou Bini Yao Christophe, Konan Djezou, Koffi Antoine, Kouakou Tanoh Hilaire, Obouayeba Samuel

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 63-75
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2021/v14i430139

The nine-year period of downward tapping prior to upward tapping is often considered too long and irrelevant. Thus, a study was carried out to determine the minimum time needed for downward tapping for which the agronomic parameters (rubber production, vegetative growth) of the rubber trees could best be expressed in upward tapping. Clones with slow (PB 217 and IRCA 41), moderate (GT 1) and fast (PB 260 and IRCA 18) metabolisms were used as plant material in the experiments carried out in Gagnoa, Bettié, Daoukro, San Pedro and Divo. The rubber trees were tapped in a half-spiral downward direction at different times followed by quarter-spiral upward or upward tapping. The experimental design was a Fisher block design with 9 treatments and 4 replications. The results showed that upward tapping preceded by downward tapping for 5 and/or 6 years was the best regardless of the metabolic activity class of the clone. Rubber production expressed in kg.ha-1. year-1 [Slow (5y-2675 ± 79) (6y-2488 ± 59) (T9y-2238 ± 45); Moderate ((5y-5417 ± 127) (6y-5094 ± 141) (T9y-3993 ± 58); Fast (5y-5210 ± 239) (6y-4733 ± 500) (T9y-3723 ± 245)] resulting from these upward tappings increased with an increasing gradient of clone metabolism without, however, detrimental to vegetative growth (cm. yr-1) [Slow (5 yr-3.90 ± 1.27) (6 yr-4.05 ± 1.48) (T9 yr-3.40 ± 1.13); Moderate ((5 yr-3.02 ± 0.25) (6 yr-2.80 ± 0.05) (T9 yr-2.39 ± 0.02); Fast (5 yr-4.27 ± 0.42) (6 yr-3.97 ± 0.28) (T9 yr-3.60 ± 0.05)]. These results show that upward tapping in year 6 is more advantageous than tapping in year 10.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determining the Coping Strategies towards Household Food Security Practiced by the Farmers in Flood Prone Areas

M. E. Haque, M. N. Islam, M. J. Alam, M. Y. Uddin, M. M. Haque, M. R. Islam, M. A. Majid, M. G. Mostafa, N. Muhammad, M. Z. Turin

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 76-81
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2021/v14i430140

A study was carried out at each of three flood affected reverine villages of three upazilas (small administrative unit) under Jamalpur district in Bangladesh during September, 2011 to May, 2012 to find out the coping strategies towards household food security practices by the farmers during flood period. Data were collected from randomly selected 336 respondents of 6720 farm families through both the qualitative and quantitative techniques and analyzed with the help of SPSS. A three-point rating scale was used for measuring the coping strategies considering five components such as food preservation, food management, food collection, agricultural products protection and some social aspects. The overall situation about practicing coping strategy had medium to high level where 70.83 percent were practiced high, 29.17 percent medium and none of them were under practiced low coping strategy towards household food security. Based on the above findings, it can be said that still now there is an ample scope for the development workers to work with the flood affected people for creating awareness towards better utilization of existing resources for improving their food situation as well as livelihoods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agrophysiological Characterization of Maize (Zea mays) Plants from EV 8728 Seeds Irradiated to Gamma Radiation

Ayolié Koutoua, Beugré Manéhonon Martine, Kanga Ahou Nadia, N’guessan Affoué Sylvie Rachelle, Kanga N’guessan Martial, Kouadio Kouamé Léonard, Kouadio Akéssé Blaise, Koné Sié Kissomanbien, Kouadio Yatty Justin

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 82-88
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2021/v14i430141

Maize (Zea mays L.) is a tropical annual herbaceous plant of the Poaceae family. It is a cereal cultivated under very varied conditions ranging from tropical to temperate climates. However, the accentuated climate change causes abiotic and biotic stresses reducing the development and the production of the plants. To improve these plants, it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in these stresses. Two doses of gamma irradiation (200 and 300 grays) were applied to the seeds of a variety (EV8728) of maize grown on an experimental plot at the Jean Lorougnon Guédé University (UJLoG). Thus, the morphological, physiological and biochemical behaviors of the plants were evaluated. The results showed that gamma radiation significantly reduces morphological parameters. However, this reduction is accentuated at 300 grays. At the physiological and biochemical level, the radiation reduced the chlorophyll a, b and total (t) contents and the carotenoid content. Additionally, the contents of proline, total protein and total sugar increased with 200 grays and decreased for 300 grays. However, the phenolic compounds content increases with the irradiation dose.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Gamma Irradiation of Seeds on the Development and Productivity of Three Maize Varieties (Zea mays. L) in Côte D’ivoire

Yao Kouakou Francois Konan, Ayolié Koutoua, Soro Dogniméton, Koné Sié Kissomanbien, Kouadio Akéssé Blaise, Kouadio Yatty Justin

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 89-99
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2021/v14i430142

Climate variability has been and continues to be the main source of food fluctuations. This variability threatens the production of cash crops such as maize (Zea mays L). Maize is a cereal and has become one of the main agricultural crops in Côte d’Ivoire. The objective of this study is to determine the agro-morphological characteristics of three (03) varieties of maize (EV 8728, GMRP / 18 and MDJ) which have undergone irradiation with gamma radiation (0, 100, 200 and 300 grays) to induce mutations. The agro-morphological evaluation was carried out in a completely randomized block device. morphological characters selected from the descriptors of maize were used in this study. The descriptive analysis revealed a significant diversity between the treatments. The comparison between all the agro-morphological characters and the different treatments showed that the treatments EV8728_0 and EV8728_100 Gy had the best characteristics of ears and grains and the treatment MDJ_200 had the best vegetative characteristics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Assessment and Proximate Composition of Pepper (Capsicum annum) and Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Displayed for Sales

Omorodion Nnenna, Alabo Briggs

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 100-112
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2021/v14i430143

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and pepper (Capsicum annuum) are among the world’s most important vegetable crops. A total of 20 samples made up of fresh tomatoes, spoilt tomatoes, fresh pepper and spoilt pepper were analysed in this study. Standard microbiological practices were carried out on the samples. Total Heterotrophic Bacterial (THB) Count for Spoilt tomatoes ranged from 1.98x107cfu/g to 2.39x107cfu/g. Fresh tomatoes samples had a THB counts ranging from 1.43x106cfu/g to 2.14x106cfu/g. Spoilt pepper total heterotrophic bacteria counts ranged from 1.46x107cfu/g to 2.01x107cfu/g. Fresh pepper had a THB count of 1.22x106cfu/g to 1.66x106cfu/g. Spoilt tomatoes samples had a higher fungal count that ranged from 3.5x105cfu/g to 5.25x105cfu/g while the fresh tomatoes samples had lower fungal counts ranging from 1.95x104cfu/g to 3.45x104cfu/g. The spoilt pepper had fungal counts ranging from 1.45x105cfu/g to 2.65x105cfu/g which was higher than that of fresh pepper with a low count of 1.6x104cfu/g to 2.75x104.cfu/g. The bacterial isolates identified during this study are Staphylococcus sp., Escherichia coli, Bacillus sp., klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Shigella sp., Protues sp., Enterobacter sp., Citrobacter sp., Lactobacillus sp. Micrococcus sp. Listeria sp. Streptococcus sp. and Serratia sp. Spoilt tomatoes had the highest coliform count 1.02x105cfu/g to 9.0x105cfu/g while fresh tomatoes had a lower count of 4.65x105cfu/g to 6.75x105cfu/g. Spoilt pepper recorded coliform counts ranging from 3.8x105cfu/g to 9.4x105cfu/g. Most of the fungi isolated from both the tomatoes and pepper samples were molds and yeast which include Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Candida sp., Saccharomyces sp., Penicillium sp. Mucor sp. and Fusarium sp. Adequate cooking is recommended before consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Sex Effects on Serum Biochemical and Genetic Parameters of Japanese Quails

U. H. Udoh, J. E. Udoh, A. A. Adeoye

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 113-122
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2021/v14i430144

The study evaluated effect of Sex on serum biochemical parameters and Correlation with body weight of Japanese quails. A total of 400 birds (200 birds per sex) were reared in a Completely Randomized Design under standard management practices for 7 weeks with feed and water given ad libitum. Sex were considered treatments. Weekly body weight (BW) was measured. The three authors have declared that, “principle of laboratory animal care” (NIH publication 85 - 23 revised 1985) were followed as well as the University law. All the experiment have been examined and approved by the University law.100 birds per sex were randomly selected and blood samples were collected for serum biochemical parameters: blood Glucose (GLU), Total Cholesterol (CHOL), Triglycerides (TG), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Total Protein (TP), Albumin (ALB)and globulin (GLB). The results indicated that sex significantly (P < 0.05) influenced all the serum biochemical parameters of Japanese quail measured in this study at week 7. All data collected were analyzed with GLM of SAS ver. 9.2 and means were separated. Females of Japanese quail had the higher least square means in the serum biochemical parameters of Japanese quails than the Male counterparts. Females showed higher means in TP, ALB, GLB, TG, CHOL, AS, ALT and GLU significantly (P<0.05) higher than males with for the same parameters, respectively. However, males showed higher significant (P<0.05) difference in ALP than females measured. Correlation between BW and serum biochemical parameters for male quails ranged from -15% to 15% (low trend) while that of Female counterparts was -73% to 73% (low to high trend). In conclusion, female quails had higher values in TP, ALB, GLB, TG, CHOL, AST, ALT and GLU than the Males counterparts’ exception of ALP. Hence, female quails were considered fit for studying quails’ health status as early clinical signs will be observed for quick responds to arrest the situation that will lead to disease outbreak and a breeding program will be established for quails. Body weight of female quails is a good selection tool to predict serum biochemical parameters of quails. The correlation coefficient between body weight and serum biochemical parameters was high and significant in favor of female Japanese quails.

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield and Yield Attributes of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) as Influenced by Planting Dates and Weed Management Systems

Tej Pratap Dubey, Rajan Sagar Chaudhary

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 123-134
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2021/v14i430145

Chickpea is one of the major winter legumes of Nepal, grown in terai and inner terai predominantly. To ascertain the degree of variation exhibited by the weed management practices at different stages of chickpea crop growth due to influence of dates of sowing, an experiment was conducted during rabi season of consecutive years (2018-19 and 2019-20) at the farmer’s field in Bhairahawa, Rupandehi district, Lumbini Province, Nepal. This location has a typical sub tropical climate characterized by hot, dry summer and cool winter. The field experiment consisted of two factors: dates of sowing and weeds management practices and was conducted in split plot design with three replications. Three dates of sowing i.e. 10th November, 25th November and 5th December were allocated under main plot and eight weed management practices i.e. weedy, weed free (two hands weeding at 30 and 60 DAS), Pendimethalin(PRE)@1kg a.i. ha-1, Quizalofop(POST)@50g a.i. ha-1, Imazethapyr (POST)@37.5g a.i. ha-1, Pendimethalin (PRE)@1kg a.i. ha-1 followed by Quizalofop (POST) @50g a.i. ha-1, Pendimethalin (PRE)@1kg a.i. ha-1 followed by Imazethapyr (POST)@ 37.5 g a.i. ha-1 and Pendimethalin (PRE)@1kg a.i. ha-1  followed by mechanical weeding. The maximum and the minimum yield attributes were found to be significantly different in the 10th November-sown crop and the 5th December-sown crop, respectively. The Harvest index was recorded maximum under Pendimethalin (PRE) treated crop. Among herbicides, Pendimethalin (PRE) followed by Quizalofop (POST) recorded more values of yield attributes and yield while that  were the minimum in Imazethapyr treatment due to its phytotoxic effect on the crop, so use of this herbicide is not recommended pulse crops like chickpea. It is vital to conduct further research in these areas to bring out eco-friendly and cost-effective alternatives.