Open Access Minireview Article

Improving Food and Nutrition Security in Kenya’s Arid Lands-A Mini Review

Michael N. I. Lokuruka

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 45-63
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2021/v14i330129

This paper presents a review of the literature on food and nutrition security in Kenya’s arid counties. It also provides strategies that can be adopted to improve food and nutrition security in the counties. Due to their aridity, they are associated with low economic, health, literacy and food and nutrition security indicators. They bear the brunt of food and nutrition insecurity and a proportionately higher percentage of their population faces starvation, whenever droughts occur. Stunting and wasting in the region’s children averages 28 and 14%, respectively. The figures compare poorly with the national averages of 4% and 11%, respectively. As the indices are related to quantity, diversity and quality of food intake, there is need to reduce food and nutrition insecurity in these Counties. Past efforts to reduce food and nutrition insecurity have failed, due to lack of long-term commitment from the National-level of Government, the use of inefficient farming technologies and low level of mechanization. Poverty, low and unpredictable rainfall for rain-fed agriculture, inconsistent livestock marketing of poor quality livestock, high crop production costs, high food prices also contribute to food and nutrition insecurity of the region. To improve food and nutrition security, it is recommended that the National-level of Government cedes the implementation of food production programmes to County Governments, while it strengthens food production policies, diversification of livelihoods and supports resilience-building. Other recommendations include innovating solar and wind-power devices to run machinery for food production, processing and preservation. Improvements in water harvesting, storage and pumping with wind and solar-powered equipment can also be explored. These improvements should eventually reduce dependence on food importation, which raises food prices, and de-incentivizes local farmers. Diversification of livelihoods, good governance and the application of appropriate technologies in food production, value addition and cooperation of the two levels of Government, are likely to gradually improve access and availability of quality and affordable food. The potential result is an improving food and nutrition security situation in Kenya’s arid Counties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Potential of Two Maturity Stages of Eggplant Solanum aethiopicum "Striped Toga" Variety Harvested in Côte d’Ivoire

Dan Chépo Ghislaine, Fagbohoun Jean Bedel, Fankroma Martial

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2021/v14i330125

African eggplant Solanum aethiopicum var. striped toga is a vegetable-fruit widely consumed in Côte d'Ivoire. However, observations have shown that the cortex was removed from the pulp during culinary preparations for various reasons. The objective of this study is to contribute to the valorization of this eggplant by showing the nutritional interest of the cortex and the pulp. The samples used in this study were collected in a market garden located south of Abidjan. After separating the cortex from the pulp, they were ground into powder and used for physicochemical analysis. The results concerning physicochemical parameters showed that the ripe pulp (Pm) compared to the ripe cortex (Cm) contained more total sugars (165±0.7 versus 107±0.70 mg/100 g DM). Whereas, the unripe pulp Pnm contained significant amounts of polyphenols and tannins compared to the unripe cortex (636±0.25 versus 328±0.04 mg/100g DM for total polyphenols; 577±0.09 versus 171±0.21 mg/100 g DM for tannins). Oxalate contents decreased in ripe parts of the fruit (Pnm: 332±2.52 and Cnm: 131±1.00 mg/100g DM in unripe eggplant versus Pm: 157.75±1.52 and Cm: 55±0 .00 mg/100g DM in ripe eggplant). Also, Solanum aethiopicum var. striped toga could play an important role in human nutrition because of their nutrients content, thus contributing to better health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Profitability and Impact of BINA Developed Aman Mutant Rice Binadhan-7 with Non-Mutant Variety in Bangladesh

M. H. Rahman, R. Sultana, M. M. A. Sarkar, S. Islam, M. A. K. Azad, S. Sivasankar

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 11-25
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2021/v14i330126

This papar examined the cost and revenue as well as impact of mutant rice on fourteen region of Bangladesh namely Mymensingh, Jashore, Cumilla, Bogura, Rajshahi, Sylhet, Dinajpur, Rangpur, Dhaka, Khulna, Chattagram, Rangamati, Barishal and Faridpur. A total of 560 farmers were randomly selected to fulfill the objectives where 280 farmers were mutant growers and 280 were non- mutant growers. A pre-designed interview schedule was used to collect the necessary data. Descriptive statistics, profit function and livelihood assets were used to analyzed the collected data. The study revealed that total variable cost of rice cultivation was BDT.40589 and BDT.43927 per hectare for mutant and non mutant, respectively which was around 71 percent of total cost of production. On an average, the total cost of production was BDT.59584 per hectare, where 29 percent was fixed costs and 71 percent was variable cost. For Binadhan-7 cultivation per hectare average net return was found highest in Dinajpur region i.e. BDT.70919 and the lowest in Jashore region i.e. BDT.33703. BCR on total cost basis was found 1.90 which was the highest in Sylhet 2.56 and the lowest 1.51 in Jashore region for Binadhan-7 production. In case of non-growers BCR on total cost basis was found 1.43 which was lower than Binadhan-7 production in the study areas indicating Binadhan-7 growers earn much than the non growers. The asset pentagon approach showed that there is a noteworthy increases in capitals of sampled farm households and the highest for financial capital that was 20.05 percent and the lowest was for natural capital i. e., 5.38 percent. Among the list of preferences, the highest was 88.93 percent for short duration and it was ranked I, the lowest was high yielding i.e. 81.43 percent which was ranked as V. Among the constraints, the highest constraint reported by the farmer was labour crisis as well as high price of labour i.e. 80.71 percent and it was ranked I and the lowest ranked V was lack of quality seed at proper time i.e. 48.93 percent in Binadhan-7 cultivation. Finally it is remarked that short duration high yielding variety Binadhan-7 plays a vital role in the monga mitigation of the northern areas of Bangladesh.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate and Mineral Composition of Some Leafy Vegetables Sold in Farin Gadan Market in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

E. G. Ibrahim, M. A. Gube-Ibrahim, D. O. Adekeye, N. J. Numonaya

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 26-35
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2021/v14i330127

This study was carried out to determine the mineral concentration and proximate composition of four different leafy vegetable collected in from Farin Gadan Market Jos Plateau State Nigeria and extracted using double acid extraction method. Heavy metals concentration was performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and proximate composition was determined by Association of, Official Analytical chemistry (AOAC,1999) method. Results showed that the highest level of lead was found in Jute (0.045 ±0.004) while Lettuce (0.001 ±0.007) had the lowest level of lead. The leafy vegetables in this study may have been polluted with lead through pollutants in irrigation water, farm soil or due to pollution from the highway traffic. Chromium and cadmium were observed to be low in all the leafy vegetables analyzed, which is still within the safe limit set by FAO/WHO. Zinc had the highest concentration (2.802± 0.012) in bitter leaf, proximate analysis indicated significant variability in the constituents contained in the leafy vegetables studied (Carbohydrate, Ash content, crude protein, crude fats, crude fibre and moisture content in descending order). The highest moisture content was found in Lettuce (7.791%) and the highest crude protein in Bitter leaf (12.88%). The concentrations of the toxic heavy metals are within the tolerable limits of some regulatory authorities. However, there is need for continuous monitoring of heavy metal and proximate analysis in leafy vegetables because, leafy vegetables are the main sources of food supplements for humans in many parts of the world and are considered as bio-indicators of environmental pollution. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Importation Ban on Rice Production in Bade Local Government Area of Yobe State, Nigeria

E. O. Owoade, M. B. Umar, M. Abubakar, A. L. Abdulhakeem, I. Y. Lailai

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 36-44
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2021/v14i330128

Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the importation ban on rice production in Bade Local Government Area of Yobe State, Nigeria.

Methodology: A two-stage sampling procedure was used to select 110 respondents. The study used a structured questionnaire and oral interview to collect data from rice farmers on socioeconomic characteristics, change in input utilization, access to factors of production, adoption of new ideas and practices, and change in rice production. Data were analyzed using means, frequency counts, percentages, correlation analysis and z-test. The study was conducted between February and June in the year 2021.

Results: The findings revealed that 36.6% of the respondents were within the age range of 31-40 years while the mean age was 38.62 years. The majority (90.1%) were males and the majority (80.2%) were married. Only 14.9% of the respondents did not acquire formal education. There was a great increase in the utilisation of herbicides (mean=4.47), water pumps (mean=4.58), fertilizers (mean =4.62) and seeds (mean =4.79). Access to credits (mean =1.27), pesticides (mean =1.56), knapsack sprayers (mean =1.71), water pumps (mean =1.76), fertilizers (mean =1.81) and farmlands (mean =1.89) was high but access to subsidies (mean =0.70) and extension services (mean =0.69) was low. There was significant positive correlation between age (r=0.56, p=0.00), income, (r=0.43, p= 0.00), size of farm holding, (r=0.30, p= 0.02), household size (r=0.23, p= 0.02), change in input utilisation (r=0.22, p=0.03) and change in rice production. A significant difference existed between the quantity of rice produced before the ban and after the ban (z=-4.54, p˂0.05).

Conclusion: The importation ban policy of the Federal Government of Nigeria caused a substantial increase in paddy rice production. The study recommended that the government proactive measure on rice importation ban should be sustained to make the country self-sufficient in rice production.