Open Access Minireview Article
Plasmopara viticola, the aetiological agent of grapevine downy mildew (DM), is the most important pathology afflicting viticulture and requires a great number of fungicide treatments to avoid severe yield losses and quality decreasing. To date, great efforts have been made to reduce the use of plant defensive products. Resistant cultivars, new agrochemicals and, finally, epidemiological models have been elaborated to better manage plant phytoiatric treatments. Nowadays, models are widely used because they allow the cultivation of traditional varieties, limiting agrochemicals. Using such models, implemented in a DSS (Decision Support System), results in a lower risk of grapevine damage by diseases and pests and, in many cases, in a lower input of active substances. Thanks to the information reported in a DSS, users could become more conscious of the relations between weather conditions, pathogen’s cycle, and infections risk, which is an issue not yet well understood by lots of winegrowers. For this instance, DSSs have been established as important tools for the achievement of more sustainable agricultural practices. Hence, understanding their working principles might be really important. In fact, in this way, technicians and farmers can adopt the suitable system to fit their own agricultural reality, aiming at a better vineyard management under a sustainable point of view.
Open Access Original Research Article
The objectives of this research were to evaluate the socio-economic features of rural women, determine their participation extent in rice farming activities, and find out relationship between socio-economic features and extent of participation. This survey-based research was conducted in a village called Jahidpur in the Sunamganj district. 80 farm families involved in rice farming were selected by using simple random sampling method. Data were collected from women respondents through direct interviews using questionnaires. To determine participation extent, a rating scale of 5 points was used. Around 22 tasks were categorized into 5 aspects namely pre-planting, planting, intercultural operation, harvesting, and post-harvesting. The report revealed that rural women's participation was maximum in post-harvesting activities. However, no participation was found in some field-level tasks such as seedbed preparation, transplanting, nutrient management, plant protection management, irrigation, and harvesting. A major part of the rural women had medium level participation in rice farming activities 61.25% compared to a low participation rate of 38.75% but nobody had high level participation. Some socio-economic characteristics such as age, farming experience, agricultural knowledge had a significant positive relationship whereas education had a significant negative relationship with rural women's participation in rice farming activities. Tradition (100%), food security (95%), and poverty reduction (92.5%) were the main three reasons for women’s participation while male-dominated society (100%), restricted social interaction (95%), and limited access to resources (86.5%) acted as top three barriers. Rural women's involvement in rice farming was not at a satisfactory level and proper strategy implementation is required for further increasing the participation extent in rice farming activities.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aims: The aim of this work is to assess the level of aflatoxins contamination in maize produced in five regions (Poro, Hambol, Gontougo, Gbêkê, Indénié-Djuablin) of Côte d'Ivoire.
Place and duration of study: In this study 375 samples of maize (grains, cobs, spathes) were taken from February 2016 to January 2017 and the aflatoxin analyses were carried out at the Biotechnology Laboratory, Agriculture and Development of Biological Resources of the Félix Houphouët-Boigny University.
Methodology: The aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) were extracted and assayed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) according to the AOAC method.
Results: The results indicate the presence of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in all forms of maize (grains, cobs, spathes) and in the five regions chosen for the study. The mean concentrations of aflatoxins B1 (AFB1) and the total aflatoxins (AFT) varied from 0.79 ± 0.04 µg/kg to 130.31 ± 22.56 µg/kg and from 2.63 ± 2,35 µg/kg to 169.13 ± 40.39 µg/kg respectively. samples from Indénié-Djuablin, Hambol and Gountougo regions showed the highest proportions of non-compliance with the european Union limit of 5 μg/kg and 10 μg/kg. Regarding AFB1, these proportions vary from 0% to 46% in the regions of Gbêkê, Poro and Hambol, while they are between 54% and 96% in the regions of Indénié-Djuablin and Gontougo. For total aflatoxins, the proportions of non-compliant samples were between 0% and 40% (Gbêkê and Poro), 12% and 56% (Hambol), 56% and 96% (Indénié-Djuablin and Gontougo).
Conclusion: These results demonstrate a need for monitoring of maize production by stakeholders in the sector who should adopt good agricultural practices.
Open Access Original Research Article
A field experiment was conducted from May 2017 to February 2018 at the research farm of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University to evaluate the performance and profitability of three seasonal (Broccoli, Cabbage and Okra) and two annual crops (ginger and turmeric) in lemon-based agroforestry systems. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated thrice. For seasonal crops the treatments were sole field (T0), 50 cm distance from tree base (DTB) with ginger (T1), 50 cm DTB with turmeric (T2), 100 cm DTB with ginger (T3) and 100 cm DTB with turmeric (T4). For annual crops (ginger and turmeric) the treatments were sole field (T0) and four distance regimes (50, 100, 150 and 200 cm) from the lemon tree base in agroforestry systems. The results of the study revealed that the yield of seasonal crops decreased and the yield of annual crops and perennial trees increased in agroforestry than respective sole cropping systems. The yield performance of crops component was significantly decreased with the decreasing distance towards tree base in agroforestry systems. The economic analysis showed that the net return, benefit-cost ratio (BCR) and land equivalent ratio (LER) was higher in the lemon-based agroforestry system than sole cropping. Therefore, the cultivation of cabbage, broccoli, okra, ginger and turmeric under lemon-based agroforestry systems are economically profitable.
Open Access Review Article
Food insecurity is high in sub-Saharan Africa. It has been estimated that 29 out of the 40 low income countries and countries with the highest rates of malnutrition are found in this region. Therefore, increasing agriculture productivity in sub-Saharan Africa is a priority and utilization of scientific and technological advances could enhance agricultural productivity. While the use of transgenic crops has been floated as one of the key solutions, to this effect, the region has continuously experience low levels of adoption compared to other regions. This paper reviews the state of production and adoption in sub-Saharan Africa, with an in-depth explanation of factors that may have led to low adoption levels. Furthermore, biosafety measures meant to regulate production and utilization of transgenic crops have also be discussed.