Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Assessment of Vegetable Crop Performances and Ecological Indicators during Transition from Conventional to Ecological Agriculture

L. H. P. Gunaratne, K. S. Hemachandra, Y. M. K. Kumudumali, N. K. G. K. R. Manawasinghe, H. G. A. S. Sathischandra, J. M. Soorasena, T. H. M. U. M. Thelasinghe, W. S. P. Y. Upali, W. A. P. Weerakkody, K. W. L. K. Weerasinghe, S. B. A. Weerawarna

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2021/v14i130113

Selected field vegetable crop combinations and increasing dosage of bio-char application, together with other alternative agronomic components of ecological agriculture (EA) were compared with conventional agriculture (CA) during the first three seasons of transition from CA to EA under hot-humid tropical conditions and sandy regasolic soils in Kalpitiya, Sri Lanka. The recommendations of the Department of Agriculture (Sri Lanka) was followed for managing conventional agriculture plots while alternative ecological options were followed for plant nutrient and pest managements. Capsicum-beet, Okra-beet and mae-spinach and radish-onion crop combinations could be selected for intercropping under ecological as well as conventional cropping systems based on their yield performances (Land Equivalent Ratio -LER) or other yield components. Even though plant growth rates and crop yields were lower at the beginning, EA was able to outrank CA by the third consecutive season. A bio-char amendment of 2 kg m-2 could be identified as the best among the different dosages tested. Soil N, P and K contents were increased while accumulation of Cd and Hg were reduced at the end of a three season long ecological agriculture practices. Insect pest/natural enemy incidence were not different between two cropping systems.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Selected Ripening Agents on the Physico-Chemical Properties and Sulphide/ Sulphate Distribution of Banana (Musa Sapientum) Fruit

C. A. Orisa, C. I. Usoroh

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 10-17
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2021/v14i130114

This study aimed at evaluating the effect of two ripening agents (calcium carbide and kerosene fumes) on the physiochemical properties and sulphide/sulphur distribution of banana fruit. Freshly unripe banana fruit were treated with calcium carbide powder and kerosene fumes and ripened within 48 hrs. Fruit samples were also ripened naturally and served as control. The samples were analyzed for physicochemical properties and sulphur/suphate distribution (outer and inner). The result of physicochemical analysis revealed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in pH (5.43-4.75), total titratable acidity (TTA) (5.03-0.47%), moisture (75.87-67.13%), carbohydrate (11.14-5.09%) and vitamin C (0.27-0.002mg/100g) with an increase in total soluble solids (2.00-19.30oBrix) following ripening process. Amongst the ripened fruits, fruits ripened with calcium carbide had highest TTA (1.63%) and moisture (74.75%). Accelerated ripened banana fruits had low pH>5 and higher TSS than naturally ripened sample. The concentrations of sulphur/sulphide (0.29-1.85mg/kg) were below the limit of 50 mg/kg indicating that the fruits were still safe for consumption against health threats posed by high concentrations of sulphate/sulphide. This study therefore quantified the changes in physicochemical properties of artificially ripened banana fruits and their possible health hazards. The study is very useful particularly in relation to the health hazards associated with chemical treatment for banana ripening. This will be useful to banana fruit sellers as it may help to           optimise the ripening practices which may lead to reduce the safety and health concerns of the consumer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of the Stability and Yield Performance of Biofortified Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes under Low Altitude Conditions

Augustin Ngombo-Nzokwani, Adrien Kalonji-Mbuyi, Pierre Nsumbu Nlandu, Antoine Lubobo Kanyenga, Marcel Muengula-Manyi

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 18-33
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2021/v14i130115

The supply of biofortified material to areas affected by malnutrition or micronutrient deficiency remains one of the major concerns of breeders. Nevertheless, this material must be efficient and stable. The evaluation of this performance and stability requires statistical indices. Biofortified genotypes are evaluated for the first time by these indices.

The objective of this work is to analyze the performance and stability of biofortified common bean genotypes under low altitude conditions in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

The present contribution uses the evaluation of twenty-six genotypes of biofortified common beans over six crop years using parametric (Wᵢ², σ²ᵢ, s²dᵢ, bi, CVi, θ₍ᵢ₎, θᵢ) and non-parametric (S(1), S(2), S(3), S(6), NP(1), NP(2), NP(3), NP(4), KR, AR) indices for the identification of successful and stable genotypes.

The results indicate the presence of the genotype x year interaction. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) shows similarities between the indices. Mean sum rank (AR) identifies NYIRAMUHONDO, G59/1-2, CODMLV 086, MBC 23, NABE 4, and K 131 as performing and stable genotypes.

In the end, the best genotypes are those that are both efficient and stable. However, where stability is much more desired in relation to performance, the use of ecovalence (Wi) is more appropriate in the stability calculation.

Open Access Original Research Article

In Vitro Regeneration of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Genotypes under Salt Stress Condition

Asfiqur Rahman Plabon, M. E. Hoque, Farhana Afrin Vabna, Fahima Khatun

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 34-43
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2021/v14i130116

Salinity is a major problem affecting crop production all over the world. Excessive soil salinity can reduce the productivity of many agricultural crops including many vegetables and spices. Onion is one of the most important spices in the Asiatic region which is now in high demand. The experiment was conducted to observe in vitro regeneration of onion (Allium cepa L.) under salt stress condition from September 2016 to July 2017. The experiment was conducted as two factorial (genotype and treatment) Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 3 replications for each treatment. Shoot tip segments of three genotypes namely Faridpuri, Taherpuri and Pusa red (Indian) were cultured in MS (Murashige and skoog, 1962) media supplemented with 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM NaCl. The genotype Faridpuri gave maximum salt tolerance upto 100 mM salinity level with 10.60 cm shoot length and 1.94 cm root length having the highest relative shoot and root growth. Pusa red was found to be salinity sensitive genotype which showing lowest shoot length of 7.03 cm and root length of 0.96 cm at 100 mM NaCl treatment. However, Taherpuri was tolerant up to 100 mM salinity level with 8.14 cm shoot length and 1.25 cm root length. Both the highest fresh weight of root (54.77 mg) and dry weight of root (41.36 mg) was from the genotype Faridpuri with 25 mM NaCl treatment. However, a convenient in vitro regeneration protocol of onion genotypes under different salinity level has been developed and the genotype Faridpuri can be used for further investigation in field condition to evaluate its performance at various salinity levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cassava Production, Processing and Utilization in South Western Part of Ethiopia

Abebe Gezahegn, Melkamu Bazie

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 57-63
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2021/v14i130135

Cassava is a root crop grown and consumed in south western part of Ethiopia. A survey was conducted to assess the production status, processing and utilization of cassava in three zones in South Western part of Ethiopia. A total of 63 farmers from five Cassava producing Districts were randomly selected for interview. A well-structured questionnaire was administered to individual respondent. The survey result showed that most of the farmers on average allocated less than 0.25ha of land for cassava production and none of the respondents were used improved cassava varieties. More than 86% of the farmers sold fresh cassava while others sold after processing. Of the interviewed farmers 98.4% of the respondents had awareness about hydrogen cyanide content of cassava and conducted different removal measures. More than half of the interviewed farmers responded that most of cassava produced in the area was used for home consumption. Less than 40% of them were used for both market and home consumption. Of the total farmers, 53% of the farmers consumed cassava by boiling and frying, while the others consume either by boiling or frying.

Open Access Review Article

Application of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for Delaying the Ripening of Banana: A Review

W. M. C. B. Wasala, C. K. Benaragama, G. D. K. Kumara, K. H. Sarananda, C. A. K. Dissanayake

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 44-56
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2021/v14i130118

1- Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) has been identified as a safe chemical tested successfully in extending shelf life while maintaining quality of plant products. 1-MCP, at very low concentrations, usually blocks ethylene receptors and then inhibits the action of ethylene delaying further ripening and senescence. Several studies have been conducted elsewhere for delaying ripening of different banana cultivars such as Cavendish, Prata, Tella Chakkerakeli, Beragan and Kolikuttu. Physiological reactions related with ripening of banana are delayed by inhibition of ethylene perception, while ethylene synthesis of banana fruit can be regulated at suppressed levels of ACS and ACO by 1-MCP. The effectiveness of 1-MCP on bananas varies with the maturity of the fruit. Fumigation, the conventional application method, has some limitations, particularly long exposure duration, uneven ripening and green ripening in bananas. Application of 1-MCP in aqueous form is recently developed to minimize these limitations. Micro-bubbling and controlled release packaging technologies are effective tools of application of 1-MCP on bananas. This review compiles and critically analyses the existing knowledge on the technological use of 1-MCP, clarifies inconsistencies in different publications.