Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Strain Age and Substrate on the Production of Pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) Extra Sweet (Md2) Vivo Plants in Greenhouse

Kanga N'guessan Martial, Cherif Mamadou, Koné Tchoa, Sanogo Souleymane, Kanga Ahou Nadia, Tuo Seydou, Affery Arthur Martin, Kassi Koffi Jean Fernand Martial, Bomisso Edson Lezin, Camara Brahima, Sorho Fatogoma, Dick Acka Emmanuel, Koné Daouda

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2020/v13i230097

Pineapple has several types of organs that can be used for its multiplication. Its natural multiplication is particularly slow, as it is necessarily vegetative because the species is self-sterile (on average 2 suckers per strain in six months). The supply of pineapple rejects is not always easy for those who want to grow pineapple on large areas. This study was initiated to improve the production of MD2 pineapple seed (suckers or vivo plant) per pineapple strain fragment. Thus, the production of two types of pineapple strains, young and old strains (The young strains bear green leaves and make up all the strains that have produced fruit. Their ages range from 0 to 12 months after the fruit has been harvested. The old strains without green leaves are older than 12 months of age), was evaluated on three types of substrates, namely : S1, 100% coarse coconut fibre; S2, 2/3 coarse coconut fibre + 1/3 sawdust and S3, 3/4 coarse coconut fibre + 1/4 chicken droppings. The seeding of the fragments on the substrates it's made in a completely randomized device in a greenhouse. The study carried out was repeated twice during the same period. Results showed that vivo plant production varied according to the age of the pineapple strain. With fragments of young strains, a mean of 3.96 ±1.74 (average ± Ecart-type) vivo plants per fragment was obtained compared to 3.07±1.63 (average ± Ecart-type) vivo plants at fragments of old strains. This difference was significant with P = 0.000. The effect of substrate was significant on the number of plants produced per strain fragment. More plants per fragment were obtained on S2 with 3.53±1.1 (average ± Ecart-type) vivo plants than on the other substrate types S1 and S3 with 3.22±1.3 and 3.09±1.02 (average ± Ecart-type) vivo plants per strain fragment, respectively. This difference was significant with P= 0.002. This study showed that a strain fragment after fragmentation gives only 3.96 ± 1.74 plants in six months. This production of pineapple vivo plants is influenced by the type of substrate and the age of the strain. Thus, young strains grown on a substrate that maintains moisture should be recommended for sustainable production of pineapple vivo plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Exposure Risk to Mycotoxins from Stored Maize (Zea mays L.) in Triple Bags with Aromatic Plants Leaves (Lippia multiflora and Hyptis suaveolens) in Côte d’Ivoire

Yao Vanessa Gaël, G. Henri Marius Biego, Konan K. Constant, Coulibaly Adama, Sidibe Daouda

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 13-25
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2020/v13i230098

In Côte d’Ivoire, maize is second cereal most cultivated and consumed after rice. In bad storage conditions, corn may be contaminated by mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, total aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fuminosin B1, zearalenone). The aim of this study was to assess the exposure risk of these mycotoxins for maize stored in triple bags in presence of aromatic plants leaves (Lippia multiflora and Hyptis suaveolens). The contents of water activity, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), total aflatoxins (AFT), ochratoxin A (OTA), fuminosin B1 (FB1) and zearalenone (ZEA) were studied and monitored. The levels of AFB1, AFT, OTA, FB1 and ZEA resulted from maize grains treated with plants leaves were significantly lower than those recorded with untreated maize of control bags. The estimated daily intakes in AFB1, AFT, OTA, FB1 and ZEA, deriving with consumption of maize from experimental batches stored for 18 months are respectively 1.69 ± 0.00 - 2.09 ± 0.01 ng/kg bw/day, 8.66 – 10.91 ng/kg bw/day, 1.86 ± 0.01 - 2.47 ± 0.01 ng/kg bw/day, 2.01 ± 0.05 - 3.01± 0.05 ng/kg bw/day and 1.89 ± 0.12 - 3.56 ± 0.04 ng/kg bw/day. These levels are lower than the estimated intakes from maximal reference value (EDILM) for OTA, FB1 and ZEA. For aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxins, the estimated daily intakes are lower than the estimated intakes from maximal reference value (EDILM) during, respectively, 15 storage months and 10 storage months. However, after 18 storage months, exposure risk of aflatoxin B1 is higher than the estimated intakes from maximal reference value. This inexpensive and easy-to-use treatment should be popularized among farmers

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Date of Sowing on Growth and Yield Performance of Field Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Genotypes

Bulbul Ahmed, Ahmed Khairul Hasan, Biswajit Karmakar, Md. Sahed Hasan, Fahamida Akter, Parth Sarothi Saha, Md. Ehsanul Haq

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 26-34
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2020/v13i230099

An experiment was carried out at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during October 2014 to March 2015 to study the growth and yield performance of field pea varieties as influenced by date of sowing. The experiment comprised of two factors namely, date of sowing and variety. Date of sowing comprised of 29 October, 13 November and 28 November and the variety comprised of BARI motor-1, BADC motor-1, Natore local and Narail local. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with three replications. The results indicate that all the growth characters were varied significantly at different days after. Those growth characters except leaf area index were highest for the crop sown on 28 November. The growth characters were highest in variety Natore local and lowest in Narail local except dry matter it was lowest in BADC motor-1. The interaction effect of 28 November sowing, Natore local was highest for all of the growth parameters except leaf area index it was highest on 13 November sowing and the interaction on 29 October sowing BARI motor-1 gave the lowest value. Most of the yield contributing parameters significantly affected by sowing date. The highest seed yield (827.7 kg ha-1) and other yield contributing characters were found on early sowing (13 November) and the lowest seed yield (534 kg ha-1) and other yield contributing characters was at 28 November sowing. Variety had significant effect on yield and yield contributing parameters. The highest seed yield (1032.2 kg ha-1) and Stover yield (3221.35 kg ha-1) was obtained from Natore local while Narail local gave lowest (469.1 kg ha-1) seed yield and lowest Stover yield. The interaction of 13 November with Natore local gave the highest seed yield (1319.3 kg ha-1) and lowest seed yield was produced by Narail local (330.35 kg ha-1) by late sowing (28 November). It can be concluded that, vegetative growth were highest at 28 November sowing and yield components gave highest value on 13 November sowing. Highest yield was produced by Natore local at 13 November sowing but yield was reduced drastically when the crop sown on 28 November. So, it is clear that the optimum date of sowing for field pea is at 13 November.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of Gross Margin for Three Varieties of Rice Grown under Two Planting Methods and Different Weed Control Measures

M. M. Olorukooba

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 35-43
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2020/v13i230100

Field trials were conducted during the 2005, 2006 and 2007 rainy season at Irrigation Research Station, Kadawa situated in Sudan savannah agro – ecological zone, Kano state, Nigeria to compare the gross margin values obtained from rice production using three different varieties of rice and different weed control measures under two planting methods. The trials were laid out in split – plot design and replicated three times with factorial combination of two planting methods and three varieties in the main plots and weed control treatments in the subplots. The results revealed that transplanting gave better gross margin value with a mean value of 127,053 Naira for the three varieties of rice cultivated under different weed control methods compare to mean value of 113,303 Naira obtained in direct seeded of the same varieties cultivated under different weed control methods. The result of the BCR also showed that transplanting of rice yielded more profit with BCR value of 2.42 for the three varieties of rice cultivated under different weed control methods compared to BCR value of 2.33 for direct seeded rice. FARO 52 performed better among the three varieties of rice with higher mean gross margin values of 143,170 and 120,720 Naira, BCR of 2.60 and 2.42 for transplanting and direct seeded, respectively for the three years cropping season. Application of pre – emergence oxadiazon @ 1.0 Kgha-1 followed by post – emergence piperophos plus propanil @ 1.5 Kgha-1 applied at 5 WAS / T gave the highest gross margin of 166,770 Naira and BCR of 2.78 under transplanting for the three years which was closely followed by hand-pulling weed control measures with gross margin value of 165,720 Naira and BCR of 2.94 under direct seeding compared to the weedy check that gave the least gross margin and BCR in both methods of planting. The study therefore, concludes that transplanting of FARO 52 rice variety and combined pre-emergence application of oxadiazon @ 1.0 kg a.i.ha-1 followed by post-emergence piperophos plus propanil @1.5 kg a.i.ha-1 were the best and second suitable treatment interaction to obtain good profit. Therefore combination is recommended as the economically viable option for lowland rice production in the Sudan savanna agro-ecological zones.

Open Access Original Research Article

Long Term Manuring and Fertilization Effect on Soil Properties in Terrace Soil

Firoz Ahmed, Majharul Islam, Md. Mahfujur Rahman, Md. Saikat Hossain Bhuiyan, M. A. Kader

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 44-52
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2020/v13i230101

The study was carried out the influence of long term manuring and fertilization on soil properties. Soil samples were collected in 2016 from a highly weathered terrace soil with rice-wheat cropping pattern at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU) experimental farm having five OM (control, cow dung, green manure, rice straw and compost) treatments combined with three mineral N fertilizer (control, 155 kg ha-1, 220 kg ha-1) levels. Long term (28 years) application of mineral fertilizers and manure resulted in significant differences in soil organic carbon, total N content, C:N ratio of soil and soil pHKCl between the treatments. The  soil organic carbon content varied among the different treatments from 6.11 g OC kg-1 (application of rice straw and no N) to 9.43 g OC kg-1 (application of compost and 220 kg N ha-1 yr-1). The total soil N content varied among the different treatments from 0.41 g N kg-1 (application of rice straw and no N) to 0.73 g N kg-1 (application of compost and 220 kg N ha-1 yr-1). The C:N ratios of the soil varied among the different treatments from 13.3 (application of no exogenous OM  and no N) to 15.1(application of green manure and no N). The soil pH varied among the different treatments from 4.42 (application of cow dung and 220 kg N ha-1 yr-) to 4.89 (application of compost/cow dung and no N). So, long term fertilization and manuring undoubtedly bring some changes in the physiochemical soil properties of terrace soil.