Open Access Original Research Article

Management of Liquid Organic Waste from Palm Oil Plant and Compost Cow to the Growth and Production of Sweet Corn (Zea mays saccharata Sturt)

Tharmizi Hakim

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2020/v12i330082

The growth and production of sweet corn (Zea mays saccharata Sturt) are strongly influenced by good genetics and environmental factors, including how to cultivate the soil so that the availability of nutrients is quite balanced. The long-term goal of this research is to determine the effectiveness of a combination of palm oil mill effluent (LCPKS) and cow dung waste (LKTS) with EM4 bio-activator applied to sweet corn (Zea mays saccharata Sturt).

This study used a factorial randomized block design (RBD) consisting of 2 factors with 12 treatment combinations and 3 replications to obtain 36 research plots. The factors studied are the formulation factor of a mixture of palm oil mill effluent with cow dung waste, which is denoted by (A) consisting of A1 = 70% palm oil mill waste and 30% cow dung, A2 = 50% effluent palm oil mill and 50% cow dung waste, A3 = 30% palm oil mill waste and 70% cow dung waste. The dose factor with the symbol (D) consists of, D0 = control, D1 = 1.5 kg per plot, D2 = 3 kg per plot, D3 = 4.5 kg per plot.

The parameters observed were plant height (cm), biomass samples (grams), sample production (grams) and plot production (kg). The results showed that different waste mix formulations and administration of different doses did not significantly influence plant height parameters because compost maturity must be assessed by measuring two or more compost parameters to prevent phytotoxicity. Therefore, quality assurance must be carried out on compost to determine the factors that cause phytotoxicity and also research must be intensified in determining lines that will be able to degrade waste faster, more efficiently and also produce non-toxic compost that mixes the soil produced in plant growth. In addition, care must be taken in selecting raw materials for composting. The results showed that the mixed waste formulations significantly affected the biomass of the sample, where the highest average was obtained in processing A3 (30% of palm oil mill waste and 70% of cow dung waste. The research results also showed that dosing had a very significant effect on biomass parameter sample, sample production and plot production where the highest average is in the D3 treatment (4.5 kg per plot).

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Plant Spacing to Growth and Yield of Hybrid Maize (Zea mays L.)

Indra Dwipa, Syafri Karmaini, Irfan Suliansyah

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 9-16
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2020/v12i330083

Problem: Maize is one of important food for Indonesian people. The problem faced by Indonesian government is the maize is not sufficient to suffice the this country demand.

Aims: The research aimed to study the interaction between several hybrid maize varieties and plant spacing to growth and yield of hybrid maize

Study Design: Factorial design in randomized block design.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was conducted in Siguntur, Sitiung 1, Dharmasraya, West Sumatra and Indonesia from April to July 2018.

Methodology: Factorial design in randomized block design with 2 factors was used in the assay. The first factor was hybrid maize varieties (Pioneer P35 and Pertiwi 3) and the second factor was planting space (75 cm x 20 cm, 75 cm x 30 cm and 75 cm x 40 cm). The data was analyzed by ANOVA.

Results: The result showed that no interaction between planting spacing and varieties to growth and yield of maize. The best hybrid maize variety for growth and yield was Pioneer 35. The best planting space for growth and yield was 75 cm x 20 cm.

Conclusion: The interaction between plant spacing and hybrid maize varieties did not affect the growth and yield of hybrid maize.

Recommendation: The further research are recommended to study the effect of plant spacing and hybrid maize to growth and yield of maize.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Salinity on the Growth Characteristics of Solanum aethiopicum L. (Solanaceae)

S. I. Mensah, C. Ekeke, M. Udom

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 17-22
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2020/v12i330084

Salinity affects various morphological and anatomical characters of plants thereby reducing the yield of the plant in the long run. Solanum aethiopicum L. is an economic plant that is versatile for human use ranging from food to traditional medicine. Experiment was conducted to assay the impact of saline irrigation on some growth parameters (plant height, leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight and size of stomatal complex). Results of the experiment showed that for most parameters studied that the values obtained for the treatments are reduced compared to the control, thereby establishing that saline water harmed S. aethiopicum L. There is no significant difference in the plant from week 5 (i.e. 2 weeks after application of saline water) but at week 6 and 7 (i.e. 3 and 4 weeks after application of saline water respectively), there was significant difference in the parameters. Therefore it is advised that S. aethiopicum L. be grown on soils with low or no content of salinity to maintain optimum growth and development of the plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Business Intention and Gendered Role on Implication of the Resource-based View: Quantitative Context on Agribusiness

K. M. V. Sachitra

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 23-38
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2020/v12i330085

Purpose: This paper analyses the moderating effects of farm owner’s gender and business intention which could impact on the resource-capability-competitive advantage linkage in agribusiness. The study adopts the resource-based view in combination with dynamic capabilities.

Design: The sample of the consisted of the farm owners who have experience in commercial cultivation of minor export crops in Sri Lanka. A self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data.

Findings: Based on the data collected from 456 farm owners, results of the multiple regression analysis suggest farm owner’s business intention has moderating effects upon the relationship between resources, capabilities and competitive advantage. However, statistically significant moderation effect of farm owner’s gender on the relationship between resources, capabilities and farm’s competitive advantage was not reported.

Research implications: The result gives positive sign that gender is not a constraint factor to gain competitive advantage at firm level and psyche of the leaders regarding their business intention which can lead to enhance the link between resources, dynamic capabilities and competitive advantage.

Originality: The literature gap in competitive advantage literature by highlighting the potential roles of gender and business intention play in the resource-capability-competitive advantage interaction has been addressed. The results provide practical implications for policy makers, government and local communities with regard to selecting suitable resources and integrating them with proper capabilities for greater competitive advantage of the agribusiness sector.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Constraints to Catfish Farming in Kogi State, Nigeria

Unekwu Onuche, Tijani Abdulhamid Ahmed, Ojomugbokenyode Ebenehi

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 39-46
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2020/v12i330086

This study assessed the constraints to catfish production in Kogi state, Nigeria. The data collected were analyzed using frequency counts and exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation method. Results show that 76.0% of the respondents were male with a mean age of 46 years and mostly educated, but little (5 years) of experience in catfish production. Three factors were extracted and the factor analysis indicate that the major problems confronting catfish production in the area are rooted in economic and climatic challenges. The challenges of finance, input costs and other economic factors faced by catfish farmers in Kogi state appear to be similar to those found elsewhere. Away from economic issues however, climatic factor and operational constraints exhibit some variations in presentations and seriousness. For instance, climatic issues appear to be priority issues in the area. Scarcity of viable fingerlings is also another issue that requires serious attention. Credit facilities at low rates or grants, should be made available to catfish farmers to enable them address input challenges. Also, research into local feeds and monitoring of local feed production will improve their qualities and minimize feed importation and its attendant high cost. Again, government support through capacity development, motivation and monitoring of extension personnel will assist in training the catfish farmers on climate change mitigating strategies. Finally, infrastructural development is canvassed in addition to availability of skilled manpower to encourage the establishment of certified hatcheries, aid in transportation and storage of output.