Open Access Original Research Article

Plant Regeneration from Mature Inflorescence of Date Palm by Using Moringa Extract

Eman M. M. Zayed, S. S. Darwesh Rasmia, Khaled Abd-El Hamed

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2020/v12i130072

Plant tissue culture is becoming an important technique for the massive propagation of date palm and the available source lead to the success of this process. The mature female inflorescence is a novel and available source for in vitro propagation of date palm, nowadays become needed at the large scale to usage of organic nature materials in agriculture practice which are rich in plant growth regulators as well as micro elements. This study describes in vitro plant regeneration from mature female inflorescence explants of evaluating date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by using the methanol extract of Moringa oleifera leaves which has great potential to be used as a natural source of nutraceutical in micropropagation. Mature inflorescences explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of an extract of  Moringa leaves with or without add TDZ at 0.2 and 0.6 BA mg/l. Indoles, phenols,  proteins,  amino acids, and carbohydrates were determined. The addition of different concentrations of an extract of Moringa oleifera leaves with TDZ at 0.2 and 0.6 BA mg/l gave the highest significant average percentage of callus formation, friable callus, germination of embryos and numbers of embryos comparing with other treatments. Also, given the highest significant values of free amino acids and carbohydrates were noted in callus and embryo germination stage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seed Coating with Organomineral Fertilizer, an Alternative Method to Improve the Efficiency of Farming

Joko Priyono, Anak Agung Ketut Sudharmawan

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 12-17
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2020/v12i130073

Seed and fertilizer are two important farming inputs, which are commonly available and used separately. Combining both materials into a unit of fertilizer-coated seed may improve farming efficiency. However, the appropriate seed coating method must be found out, and this research was the first effort of finding the method. A glasshouse experiment was carried out to identify the growth and yield of the coated seeds of rice and groundnut with organomineral fertilizer in three different sizes, i.e., small (SS), medium (MS), and big sizes (BS). Four sets of experiments were prepared, two of those were for testing two varieties of rice and the others were for testing two varieties of groundnut. Each experiment was laid out in a complete randomized design; the treatment was the size of coated seeds (SS, MS, BS, and a control - uncoated seeds) in triplicates. Results reveal that the seed coating delayed the germination of rice seeds for 2 – 3 days and groundnut seeds for 7 – 16 days, suppressed the growth and yield of rice but improved the growth and yield of groundnut. The highest yield of groundnut was the grown groundnut from the small and medium sizes of coated seeds (weight ratios of 1:4 and 1:9). The reduces of growth and yield of rice were most probably due to the direct contact of the high concentration of nutrients, especially nitrogen, with the seeds. In conclusion, the seed coating with organomineral fertilizer was a potentially developed method to improve farming efficiency. Further efforts were needed to fix the composition of organomineral fertilizer, especially the type N substances used and the steps of applying the materials onto the seeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perceptions of Flower Farm Workers on the Health Effects of Chemicals Exposures around Bahir Dar Town, Ethiopia

Teshome Gizachew Belay, Tamirat Tefera Negash

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 36-46
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2020/v12i130076

Aims: Explore the perceptions of flower farms workers towards the health effects of chemical exposures. Perception is the views, attitudes and opinions of workers.

Study Design: Descriptive survey, using quantitative and qualitative approaches.

Place and Duration of the Study: Tana Flora, Bahir Dar Farm and Tal Flowers, between November 2018 and June 2019.

Methodology: Statistical analyses were done using 302 sample workers (80 male and 222 female; age ranges 15-65 years) at 95% confidence interval employing stratified random sampling techniques via proportional sample selection, and a response rate of 95.6%. Independent sample t-test with the assumption of equal variance (the Leven’s t-test) was used to analyze the existence of significant perception differences among female and male workers, and workers labour divisions. Qualitative data was obtained through structured interviews from farms managers (3); regional Environmental, Forest and Wildlife Protection Development Authority (EFWPDA) officials (3) and field observations that supplemented the quantitatively analyzed data.

Results: Leven’s t-test showed the computed p-values were less than the preset significance level (0.05) for the majority of health impacts of chemical exposures. Significant perception differences were observed among male and female workers and workers of different labour divisions (production vs. protection; pack house vs. protection) towards health impacts: skin rush, appetite loss, stomach cancer, birth defects, reproductive system damage, dizziness and impaired sight. Males perceived in a better way than females since farms gave special focus to male workers in the protection section 27(8.9%) and they engaged using the required health protective gears. Further, in flower farms, most of the proposed health impact mitigation measures were poorly implemented.

Conclusion: Workers perception differences were occurred due to a particular attention to male workers in protection labour division; hence the regional EFWPDA should do the proper supervision and follow up for effective implementation of health impact mitigation measures.

Open Access Review Article

Analysis of Consumers’ Preference for Local Rice among Households in Ekiti State, Nigeria

Ajayi G. T, Ajiboye .A

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 18-23
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2020/v12i130074

Consumers’ preference for local rice determines its demand. Therefore, the study was carried out to analyze consumers’ preference for local rice among households in Ekiti State. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select respondents for this study. A total of 240 women were randomly selected from three Local Government Areas (LGAs) in the State. Primary data were obtained with the use of a well-structured interview schedule. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics as well as inferential statistic like logistic regression. The mean age of the respondents was 38 years and more than half (53.3%) of the respondents were females. Most (70.0%) of the respondents had a mean family size of 7 persons. Most (87.0%) preferred local rice and factors influencing consumers’ preference for local rice include good nutritional value, quality of rice and good taste. Local rice was very much preferred by the respondents. Logistic regression shows that significant influence exists between price, taste, availability of rice and presence of particles and preferred choice of rice. Therefore, efforts should be made by the government to formulate price control policy on local rice for its affordability by the consumers and there should be improvement on processing technology of local rice to eliminate presence of particles for improved quality and good taste to enhance the consumers’ preference for choice of rice. Also, the government should support farmers through provision of incentives and credit facilities so as to produce more local rice for its availability all year round.

Open Access Review Article

Funding of Agricultural Public Extension Service in a Deregulated Economy: A Study of Ebonyi State, Nigeria

K. N. N. Ezike, E. N. Okeowata, V. A. Chukwu, Ogonna O. Osuafor

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 24-35
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2020/v12i130075

Funding of Ebonyi State Nigeria Agricultural Public Extension Service in a deregulated economy was studied. The specific objectives were to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents; identify the major recommended packages/technologies and services extended to the farmers and examine the trend in the funding of agricultural extension services from 2001 to 2010. A total of 240 contact farmers were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study found that majority (65.42%) of the respondents were males; had a mean age of 49 years, married; had a relatively large household size of 8 persons; and relatively low educational status. Average farm holding was 0.90 ha and personal savings were the major sources of farm finance. Government funding of the agricultural public extension dwindled throughout the period with budget estimate at the peak of N220.4 m recorded in 2013 and the lowest of about N69.3 m in 2001, whereas the highest actual expenditure was about N99.5 m in 2010 and the lowest amount of about N37.1 m was also recorded in 2009. A big difference between the budget estimate and actual expenditure was observed in 2009 with a budget deficit of about 46.5%. The amount farmers were willing to pay for extension services was not also stable with the highest amount of about N9.2 m in 2005 and least amount of N800,000.00 in 2003. The amount expended by government was higher than the amount farmers are willing to pay with 98.2% difference in 2004. The study indicated that the proportion of farmers willing to pay for extension services is low. This could lead to reduced adoption and utilization of improved technologies and decline in farmers’ and farm productivity in a deregulated economy. Recommendations such as educating farmers on cost of extension services and the need for their contribution, backing up extension services with interest free loans, deregulating extension services in a gradual process and in phases, and improving the country’s educational system were made among others.