Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Organic Amendments on Growth, Establishment and Yield of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L) in Southwestern Nigeria

Adejobi Kayode Babatunde, Agele Samuel, Aiyelari Olaiya Peter

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2019/v11i230052

Low soil fertility is a major problem of growth and establishment of cacao seedlings, as well as the yield on the field. However, cacao (Theobroma cacao L) is characterized by high nutrient demand particularly N, P, K, Ca and Mg, during establishment. In this study, the manurial potentials of some organic wastes and their effects on growth, development and yield of cacao in Ibadan and Owena soils of Southwestern Nigeria were investigated. The experiments in Ibadan and Owena were Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 3 replicates. Fertilizers were: Goat Dung (GD), Sunshine Organic and Organo-Mineral Fertilizers (OF and OMF) and NPK 15:15:15 at 0, 200, 400 and 600 kg/ha. The fertilizers were applied to treatment plots one month after cacao seedlings were transplanted using ring method (July, 2011). Four hundred and thirty two (432) plantain suckers were planted at 3 x 3 m spacing as shade crop while 432 cacao seedlings (F3 Amazon) were also transplanted at 3 x 3 m respectively at each experimental site. Top soil samples were analysed with standard methodologies. Data were collected monthly on cacao growth parameters such as plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves and number of branches, commencing at 3 months after transplanting (MAT). The experiments were monitored for 36 months (144 weeks after planting of cacao). Survival count was carried out 12 MAT. Data collected were subjected to statistical analysis using Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and significant means were separated by Tukey’s HSD (P < 0.05) test. Cacao seedlings grown under 600 kg/ha OF application had 100 and 95 percent survival count at Ibadan and Owena respectively. All fertilizer types and rates at Ibadan and Owena significantly increased cacao seedlings height, number of leaves, stem diameter and number of branches, relative to the control plots at 3, 4, 5, 15, 16 and 17 MAT. Goat dung applied at 600 kg/ha gave the highest number of flowers, cherelles and pods at 24 and 36 MAT at Owena. However, there were no yield parameters recorded for Ibadan experiment at 24 and 36 MAT.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adoption Level of Agroforestry Practices in Katsina State, Nigeria

J. I. Amonum, S. O. Bada

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2019/v11i230053

Unsustainable forest land use practices have resulted in land degradation in Nigeria leading to low crop yield. Agroforestry is a viable option for reversing dwindling crop yields through proper soil management practices. There is notably no sufficient published information on agroforestry practices (AP) in Katsina State. The aim of this study was to assess AP for sustainable land use in the study area. Multistage stratified sampling design was used to select respondents from the study. Three Local Government Areas (LGAs) were randomly selected from each of the agro-ecological zones (Sahel, Sudan and Guinea) of Katsina State. Within each of the selected LGAs, one community was randomly selected and forty respondents were randomly sampled from each community. Using structured questionnaire, information was sought on socio-economic and AP. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Based on the results, multipurpose trees on farmland (79%), windbreaks (50%), woodlots (49.7%), improved fallow in shifting cultivation (32%) and home gardens (24.7%) were the common AP in the study area. Benefits of AP in the area included preservation of the environment (98.5%), provision of fruits and leaves (98%), and improvement of soil fertility (98%), erosion control (98%) and improvement of farmers’ income (96%). Agroforestry practices enrich the soil with important nutrients and prevent soil erosion. The adoption of multipurpose trees on farmland in the study area will help in preventing environmental degradation, desertification and enhance food crop production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Some Tomato Genotypes against Tomato Fruit Borer Infestation, Growth Parameters and Some Chemical Constituents

Md. Aktarujjaman, Sujan Majumder, Md. Ehsanul Haq, Tabassum Tamima, Anannya Parvin, Sithi Saha, Montasir Ahmed, Md. Hasibur Rahman Hera, Syed Arvin Hassan

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2019/v11i230054

A field experiment was conducted at Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA) Farm, Mymensingh from October 2007 to March 2008 with a view to evaluate the physical and chemical properties, nutrient content and infestation rate of tomato fruit borer of different mutants and varieties. The treatments consisted of six mutants viz; TM-13, TM-105, TM-110, TM-133, TM-152, TM-155 and two varieties BARI tomato-7 and BINA tomato-5. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The infestation of tomato fruit borer varied significantly among the mutants/varieties. The number of fruit borer was 2.15-5.98. The following growth parameters, yield contributing characters and chemical composition of the tomato mutants/varieties were studied which were 1.03-1.40 cm stem diameter, 14.9-19.5 cm2 leaf area, 10.08-20.10 mm-2 leaf hair, 36.7-52.0 number of leaves plant-1, 13.86-24.67 number of fruits plant-1, 24.1- 60.2 g single fruit weight, 3.69-4.0 pH, 17.1 -25.2 mg 100 g-1 vitamin-C, 0.307-0.408% TA, 2.34-2.75% reducing sugar, 0.93-1.20% non-reducing sugar. Tomato fruit borer infestation was negatively correlated with leaf hair and number of fruit plant-1 but positively correlated with stem diameter, leaf area, leaf number plant-1 single fruit weight, non-reducing sugar, pH and titrable acidity. It is concluded that TM-133 and TM-13 mutants were the best among the tested verities respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Different Energy Source on the Growth Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fingerlings

P. B. Opeh, S. U. Eteng

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2019/v11i230055

This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of different selected energy feed stuff namely; Maize (DT1), Guinea corn (DT2), millet (DT3), and wheat (DT4) on the growth performance and body composition of African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell) fingerlings. This energy feedstuff in addition with other feed ingredients was used to formulate four (4) isonitrogenous and isoenergy diets at 40% crude protein. The energy feedstuffs were formulated at 36.31%, 38.26%, 37.09% and 40.05% level of inclusion respectively. The experiment in the ponds used a set of 2 hapas with mesh size 2 mm in each pond measuring 1.62 m2, therefore replicating the experiment 2 times in a completely randomized design The evaluation of the physical parameters revealed that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in moisture, ash, lipid, fibre, protein and nitrogen free extract among the treatment (diets). The diet with maize (DT1) has the highest growth rate followed by diet containing millet (DT3), guinea corn (DT2) and diet containing wheat (DT4) had the lowest growth rate. This study, revealed that, among the energy feedstuffs evaluated maize (DT1) produced better growth parameters and could be recommended for on-farm aqua-feed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Live Mulch Conservation Practices on Crop Yields: A Study of Sweet Potato in Southwest Nigeria

S. O. Oshunsanya, G. E. Okoh, P. A. Amao, O. Aliku, E. A. Chukwuma

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/arja/2019/v11i230056

Live mulch can reduce land degradation by protecting the surface soil from direct impacts of rain drops and consequently increasing crop yields. To compare the potential biomass production of sweet potato for soil conservation, two farmlands with different degradation potentials were selected to plant ten commonly grown cultivars of sweet potato of Africa. Soil degradation rate (SDR) and vulnerability potential (Vp) of the two farms were also compared using selected soil properties as assessment tools. Results indicated that Farm A with higher total biomass slightly degraded with low vulnerability potential (SDR/Vp ≈ 2/4) while the Farm B with lower biomass severely degraded with high vulnerability potential (SDR/Vp ≈ 4/2). Correlation between biomass and yields was not significant for both the farms, indicating that biomass alone cannot determine the yields of sweet potato. On a slightly degraded soil, Benue, Akinima, TIS 87/0087 and Arrow tip cultivars had the highest tuber production (100 - 70)%, followed by Ex-Igbaraiam,  Eruwa, Shaba,  Ishiayi and TIS 8441 (69 - 50)% and least by Akwide (<50%). While on a severely degraded soil, Ex-Igbaraiam cultivar had the highest yield production (100 - 70) %, followed by Shaba, TIS 87/0087, Benue and TIS 8441 (69 - 50)% and least by Akwide, Eruwa, Ishiayi, Akinima and Arrow tip (<50%). The trend of the result reflects the ability of potato cultivars to cope with degraded soils. In terms of biomass production, TIS 87/0087, Ex-Igbaraiam, TIS 8441 and Benue were highest followed by Shaba and Akwide and least by Arrow-tip and Ishiayi. The results indicates that TIS 87/0087 cultivar can perform well under severely degraded soil while Ex-Igbaraiam and TIS 8441 with high biomass potential are better used as folders especially on a degraded soil.