Open Access Original Research Article

Grain Protectant Potential of Annona muricata and A. senegalensis against Cowpea Seed Bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

M. N. Ishuwa, O. S. Elkanah, J. A. Wahedi

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2016/26505

Annona muricata and Annona senegalensis powders were evaluated for their insecticidal potency against adult Callosobruchus maculatus. Toxicity test was conducted by contact bioassay at different concentrations of the treatment plants viz: 0.0 g, 0.5 g, 1.0 g, 2.0 g and 3.0 g was tested as well as their anti-ovipository activities, adult F1 progeny emergence suppression activities and anti-feedant activities which possibly result in the grain’ weight loss and grain damage was also tested. The results revealed that the treatment plants at all concentrations showed a significant (P>0.05) insecticidal potency, by recording higher mortality rates, suppression of egg laying and adult emergence, and reduced weight loss as well as grain damage when compared with the untreated control. The root bark of A. senegalensis at 3.0 g powder per 20 g grain had the higher mortality rate (98.5). The leaf and root bark powder of A. muricata at 3.0 g reduced oviposition minimum (1.4 respectively); leaf powder of A. muricata at 3.0 g powder per 20 g grain also reduced F1 generation emergence minimum (9.3) and root bark powder of A. muricata at 3.0 grams w/w reduced grain damage minimum (0.7). The results revealed that A. muricata at 3.0 g powder per   20 g grain for the leaf and root bark powders to be more effective in controlling C. maculatus than A. senegalensis. Therefore, it is recommended that farmers should put the practice of using Annona species, especially, A. muricata as an alternative to the dangerous and highly persistent chemical insecticides in the control of C. maculatus on stored cowpea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genotypic Differences in Grain Protein, Oil and Starch Content and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Elevated Plant Density

A. M. M. Al-Naggar, M. M. M. Atta, M. A. Ahmed, A. S. M. Younis

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2016/26730

The use of high plant density (PD) along with tolerant genotypes to high PD would overcome the negative impacts of competition stresses and lead to maximizing maize yield of grain (GYPH), protein (PYPH), oil (OYPH) and starch (SYPH) from the unit land area (ha). The main objective of the present investigation was to study   Diallel crosses among diverse maize genotypes along with their parents were evaluated in the field for such characters under three plant densities, i.e. 47,600, 71,400 and 95,200 plants/ha, using a split plot design with 3 replicates in two growing seasons. Results combined across seasons revealed that elevated PD from 47,600 to 95,200 plants/ha caused a significant reduction in GYPP (29.98%), GPC (1.24%) and a significant increase in GYPH (38.48%), PYPH (36.80%), OYPH (40.70%), SYPH (38.43%) and GOC (0.74%). The F1 hybrids were lower in GPC than inbred lines, but were higher than inbreds for the rest of studied traits under all densities. Variation in GPC was from 9.3% (Sd7) to 14.38% (L18) among inbreds and from 9.5% (L20 x L53) to 11.58% (L18 x L28), while in GOC and GSC it was narrower than in GPC under all densities. Some genotypes were identified as high yielding and of high quality, high yielding of high tolerance and density efficient and responsive. Comparing with the best check (SC 2055) under high PD, the cross L20 x L53 gave higher GYPH (22.92%) and SYPH (24.9%) and the cross L53 x Sd7 gave higher PYPH (20.9%) and OYPH (12.2%).


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Extension Service Programming Preconditions for Strategic Improvement of Women Involvement in Agro-preneurial Organizations

Dominic Paul Okon, Emem Bassey Inyang

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2016/27256

The study was an expo-facto research type that adopted cross sectional survey approach to explore the extension service programming needs as preconditions towards strategic improvement of women involvement in agro-preneurial organizations in Akwa Ibom State. Specifically, the socio-economic characteristics of respondents were identified and the dimensions of preconditions for strategic improvement of women involvement in agro-preneurial organizations were ascertained. The study adopted multi-stage sampling procedure to select 288 women for the administration of questionnaire. The data were subjected to descriptive statistics, factor analysis and relative rank order of severity incidence analysis. Based on the outcome of the descriptive analyses the study revealed that respondents within the age bracket of 37-43 were majority (33.3%) and most of them were married (46.9%). At least 38.2% were able to obtain basic formal education spending between 6-12 years, majority have a family size of 1-5 persons, while 30.2% engage in crop farming and 47% were not involved in cooperative activities. Result of the factor analysis highlighted three major factors that constraints women involvement in agro entrepreneurial cooperative and these were; low human capital in loans management efficiency, high interest rate and unethical practises, the identified preconditions for strategic improvement of women in agro-preneurial organisation showed various likely magnitude of change that would likely occur should extension theory change be applied in addressing the dysfunctional involvement of women in agro-preneurial organisation. Therefore, the study outcomes provide insights for evidence based theory of change programming for likely sustainable strategic enhancement of women involvement in agro-preneurial organisation by the State agricultural extension agency. Policy towards increasing educational attainment and knowledge in financial literacy should be implemented, as this will impact positively on their managerial competency.    

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Extraction Method and Geographical Location on the Physico-chemical Properties of Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) Butter

E. A. Seweh, P. A. Asagadunga, S. Apuri, G. Owusu

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2016/27513

Aim: To determine the effects of extraction technology and geographical location on the quality of shea butter.

Study Design: Data for physico-chemical characteristics were entered into Micro soft Excel spread sheet and summarized into mean and standard deviations. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was carried out to assess the variation between the parameters. All analyses were carried out in triplicates. Duncan’s Multiple Range Test was used to compare mean variance. Significance was accepted at 5% level of probability.

Place and Duration of Study: The study took place in selected villages in the Upper East, Upper West and the Northern regions of Ghana between August, 2015 and February, 2016.

Methodology: Oil samples from the chemical (C), mechanical (M) and the traditional (T) extraction methods (EM) and those from different shea butter extraction villages across the north of Ghana were evaluated to determine their effects on the physicochemical properties of shea butter. All analyses were carried out in triplicates and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test used to compare mean difference. Significance was accepted at 5% level of probability.

Results: The mean oil yield, saponification, iodine, acid, free fatty acid values were (50.04±3.35%; 40.21±7.21%, 39.09±2.46%), (160.79±1.50; 162.15±40, 193±8.58 mgKOH/g), (49.18±2.83; 49.58±1.39, 54.78±12.88 gI2/100g), (9.77±1.75; 12±0.27, 13.765±1.10 mgKOH/g) and (5.42±0.17; 4.69±0.04, 7.61±0.35 mg/KOH/g) for the CEM, MEM and TEM respectively. While the mean specific gravity, refractive index and peroxide values were (0.97±0.00; 0.92±0.02, 0.88±0.01), (1.46±0.00; 1.45±0.01, 1.47±0.00) and (2.25±0.15; 2.80±0.16, 3.55±0.30) respectively. The mean oil yield, saponification, and iodine values were (43.08±2.75%; 45.87±1.25%), (39.62±1.40%; 39.02±1.16%), (53.27±2.40%; 50.26±1.44%), (155.80±9.46; 127.50±5.96 mgKOH/g), (163.63±2.66; 155.45±1.30 mgKOH/g), (201.39±2.78; 193.29±3.59 mgKOH/g), (46.84±2.06; 43.93±1.47 gI2/100g), (39.19±0.99; 53.96±4.87 gI2/100 g), (66.19±1.52; 47.46±0.97 gI2/100g) for oil samples from (Jonga; Kpongo) in the Upper West, (Doba; Pusunamongo) in the Upper East and (Savelugu; Tantuani) in the Northern region of Ghana respectively. The acid value, specific gravity, refractive index and peroxide values were (9.60±1.11; 12.53±1.17 mgKOH/g), (15.46±1.00; 16.47±1.26 mgKOH/g), (12.81±0.90; 11.57±1.02 mgKOH/g), (0.85±0.16; 0.94±0.01), (0.98±0.01; 0.92±0.01), (0.88±0.02; 0.88±0.01), (1.46±0.01; 1.48±0.01), (1.52±0.11; 1.42±0.01), (1.47±0.01; 1.46±0.01), (2.67±0.05; 3.42±0.18 mEqKOH/g), (2.59±0.06; 2.65±0.02 mEqKOH/g) and (2.84±0.06; 2.26±0.02 mEqKOH/g) respectively.

Conclusion: The MEM technology had values almost mid-way between CEM and TEM and therefore yielded butter of superior quality than the other two technologies and should therefore be encouraged even if at a smaller scale. Geographical effect on the quality of shea butter revealed that kernels from the Northern region produced good quality shea butter, followed by those from the Upper West and finally to the Upper East regions. The results showed significant differences in the oil samples extracted by the different extraction methods and from different geographic locations but all fell within the acceptable ranges for edible vegetables oils.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interrelationships of Performance, Heterosis and Combining Ability of Corn (Zea mays L.) Crop under Elevated Plant Density Combined with Water Deficit

A. M. M. Al-Naggar, M. M. M. Atta, M. A. Ahmed, A. S. M. Younis

Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, Page 1-30
DOI: 10.9734/ARJA/2016/28126

The objective of the present investigation was to test the validity of predictions of GCA and SCA effects from mean performance and/or heterobeltiosis for agronomic and yield traits under elevated plant density (D) combined with water deficit. Six maize inbreds varying in high-D tolerance were intercrossed in a diallel fashion and evaluated along with their F1 crosses in six environments representing combinations of 3 plant densities and two irrigation regimes in two seasons. Both GCA and SCA variances were significant for all studied traits under all environments. The magnitude of GCA was higher than SCA variance for 45.8% of cases, but the magnitude of SCA was higher than GCA variance for the rest of cases. The best general combiners were the inbreds L53 and L20 for all studied traits and the best SCA effects for grain yield were exhibited by the crosses Sk5 × L18, L20 × L53 and L28 × Sd7 under the 6 environments. The results indicate that the highest performing inbred lines are also the highest general combiners and vice versa for 9 out of 12 traits and the highest performing crosses are also the highest specific combiners and vice versa for all 12 studied traits. Yield traits did not exhibit any correlation between heterobeltiosis and mean performance of crosses, and between SCA effects and heterobeltiosis under all six environments. For agronomic traits, the useful heterosis of a cross could be used as an indicator of its SCA effects under all environments.