Asian Research Journal of Agriculture <div><strong>Asian Research Journal of Agriculture (ISSN: 2456-561X)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/ARJA/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in field of agricultural science. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.<br><br>This is an open-access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.<br><br> Subject matters include all areas of agricultural science viz., agronomy, agricultural chemistry, entomology, plant pathology, agricultural genomics, biology, chemistry, earth science, genetics &amp; plant breeding, stored products research, post harvest biology and technology, seed science, irrigation and drainage, plant physiology, soil classification, soil fertility, soil conservation, insect and pest control, animal husbandry, aquaculture, agricultural engineering, agricultural economics, agroecology, biotechnology, organic agriculture, biodynamic agriculture, agribusiness and other allied areas.</div> <p>Every issue will consist of a minimum of 5 papers. Each issue will be running, and all officially accepted manuscripts will be immediately published online. The state-of-the-art running issue concept gives authors the benefit of 'Zero Waiting Time' for the officially accepted manuscripts to be published. This journal is an international journal and its scope is not confined by the boundary of any country or region.</p> en-US (Asian Research Journal of Agriculture) (Asian Research Journal of Agriculture) Fri, 13 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Effect of Agricultural Cooperative Membership on Willingness to Pay for Non-fatal Risk Reduction from COVID-19 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The recurring nature of the COVID-19 pandemic and the recent discovery of the Omicron variant in Nigeria, coupled with concerns about the specific roles and contributions of social institutions in redressing the spread of the virus, prompted this study. Thus, the study determined the willingness to pay for health risk reduction from Corona Virus (COVID-19); estimated the value of statistical case (VSC) and ascertained the effects of cooperative membership on the willingness to pay (WTP) for COVID-19 morbidity health risk reduction. Multi-stage sampling technique was deployed in selecting 149 cooperative and 130 non-cooperative members for the study, in Edu and Patigi Local Government Areas of Kwara State, Nigeria. To reach its conclusion, descriptive statistics, Levene’s test, t-test, chi-square, Probit analysis, propensity score matching, WTP and the value of statistical case were employed for data analysis. The study revealed that the typical cooperative member is willing to pay N1,638 per farming season to decrease his or her chance of falling sick from COVID-19 or averting non-fatal cases of COVID-19 by 1 in 10,000. In addition, the propensity score matching (PSM) estimation indicated that agricultural cooperative societies had effect on members, with the average member willing to pay N561.32 per season higher than the non-members. Arising from these results, it becomes imperative to consider integrating cooperative societies as complementary instrument for the prevention and control of COVID-19 pandemic. The estimated VSC further provides pecuniary basis and policy guidance for efficient allocation of resources for the mitigation and control of COVID-19.</p> <div id="urban_overlay">&nbsp;</div> <div id="urban_overlay" style="left: -10px; top: -10px; width: 0px; height: 0px;">&nbsp;</div> A. A. A. Coker, T. Yusuf, A. I. Oseghale, A. O. Oladele, B. A. Sule ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 13 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular Identification of Xa4 Resistance Gene to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in Cultivated Rice in Northwest Benin <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The aim of this study was to identify the cultivated rice varieties that were resistant to <em>Xanthomonas oryzae </em>pv.<em> oryzae (Xoo)</em> by molecular screening<em>. Xanthomonas oryzae </em>pv.<em> oryzae (Xoo)</em> was the causal agent of bacterial blight, in the department of Atacora in Benin.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics Applied to Genomics, between July 2021 and November 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Thirty-two rice accessions were collected in the department of Atacora and the IRBB4 isogenic line carrying Xa4 resistance gene, as a positive control, were screened using SSR marker. Genomic DNA was extracted from plants leaves. PCR using a pair of MP12 primers linked to the Xa4 gene were performed and amplified products were analyzed by electrophoresis in a 2% agarose gel.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Our results showed that a significant number of rice varieties grown in northern Benin were resistant to Xoo. 62.5% were resistant of which 70% were local varieties. Some of these resistant varieties (35%<em>) </em>were heterozygous (<em>Xa4/xa4) </em>and others were homozygous <em>(Xa4/Xa4). </em>10% had specific genotypes other than those expected, which showed the probability of existence new resistance alleles that need to be characterized.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This is the first time that a bacterial blight resistance gene has been identified in Beninese rice cultivation. This result will be very useful to rice breeders for developing elites resistant varieties through markers assisted selection programs.</p> G. Djedatin, C. Nanoukon, A. Missihoun, M. Lomou, P. Sedah, C. Agbangla ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 19 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Microbiological Assessment of Fishes Caught in the Two Major Fishing Ground in Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State (Water Works River and Ogbese River) <p>Microbial contamination of food is the main obstacle of ensuring food safety. For this, it’s paramount to ascertain the safety of fish caught in the major waters in Ado Ekiti( Water works and Ogbese river). 22 (11 each)fish sample was randomly caught from both rivers in Ado Ekiti Metropolis.The research was conducted in May,2021. After standard microbiological and biochemical Test. The total bacteria count (TBC) for all the fish samples ranged between 0.46 x 10<sup>4</sup> and 0.95 x 10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g . Out of the 22 fish samples analyses for TBC, a sample from Water works dam had the highest number of bacteria with 0.95 x 10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g. The Ogbese sample 4 had the lowest isolation with 0.46 x 10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g. The study demonstrated the occurrence of bacterial isolates such as <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Enterobacter aerogenes</em>,<em>Staphylococcus aureus,Bacillus subtili, Micrococcus luteus</em> and <em>Proteus vulgaris</em> bacteria. This analysis indicated the incidence of fish contamination. These isolates are potential pathogens and their presence can pose health risks to humans especially immunocompromised individuals and children in particular when the levels of <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>in the fish is considerably high, and the fish is not properly processed or cooked. Public education on the need for proper environmental sanitation to reduce bacteria load should be emphasized by the State government and sanction to be imposed on defaulters. Good hygienic practice aimed at minimizing the microbial load of fish must be ensured.</p> Akomolede Olumide Olawole, Awoniyi Olakunle Oluwaseun, Akinnate Ayodeji Samuel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 03 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Abundance and Diversity of Coccinellid Predators in Rice Field Ecosystem in Payakumbuh District, Indonesia <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The study aimed to study the abundance and biodiversity of Coccinellid predators in rice field Ecosystem in Payakumbuh District, Lima Puluh Kota Regency, West Sumatera, &nbsp;Indonesia.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; Purposive random sampling.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>The research was conducted in rice field of Payakumbuh District, Lima Puluh Kota Regency, West Sumatera and Laboratory of Pest, Faculty of Agriculture, Riau University, Pekanbaru, Indonesia from January to April 2022.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Purposive random sampling was used in the research. Three rice fields in Payakumbuh District was chosen as sampling locations. Sweep net method was using to collect the coccinellid and the collected coccinellids were identified in Pest Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Riau University, Pekanbaru, Indonesia. The data was analyzed by using Shannon-Winner diversity index to analyze biodiversity and evenness index.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>30 individuals of three species of coccinelid predators were found in rice field ecosystem in Payakumbuh district. The species were <em>Micraspis lineata </em>(20 individuals)<em>, Menochilus sexmaculatus </em>(9 individuals) and <em>Coleophora bisselata </em>(1 individual)<em>. </em>The species diversity index (H’) and species evenness index (E) were 0.73 and 0.66 respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The diversity of coccinellid predators in rice field in Payakumbuh district was quite stable and more stable.</p> Pajri Ananta Yudha, Indra Dwipa, Dedi Azwardi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 In-vitro Evaluation of Three Conservation Methods of Probiotics from 42-day-old Tropical Calves <p><strong>Aims:</strong> The conservation of probiotics is of great importance due to the microorganism’s viability; therefore, their properties and benefits depend on it. In this work, it was studied three methods of conservation; refrigeration, cryopreservation, and lyophilization of two probiotics isolated from the rumen of 42 day-old calves, previously evaluated: Animal 1-day 42 (A1D42) and Animal 3-day 42 A3D42.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Laboratorio de Rumiología y Metabolismo Nutricional, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, between August 2020 and September 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> It was evaluated the viability of the probiotics after of 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of refrigeration, cryopreservation, and lyophilization as preservation methods. The effect of the lyophilized probiotic A1D42 on the digestibility <em>in vitro, </em>such as its effect on the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production was also determined.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Cryopreserved and lyophilization methods had better performance about the viability in both probiotics. A1D42 lyophilized maintained its viability (67%) until 60 days and after 90 days it was affected significantly. Despite the fact that VFA production <em>in vitro</em> did not increase with probiotic addiction, A1D42 significantly increased <em>in vitro</em> digestibility by up to 66%. The results demonstrated that lyophilization is the best method of conservation of probiotic production due to it preserves vial cells, as well as the properties and effects of the probiotic.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Therefore, lyophilized A1D42 probiotic can be used as an additive in calf diets, which could improve their digestibility, and, therefore, their weight gain, which could have a positive impact on animal production, in addition to the health benefits.</p> Sarahí Rodríguez-González, Laura González-Dávalos, Armando Shimada, Ofelia Mora-Izaguirre ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 16 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Agripreneurial Orientation Constructs on Growth of Cassava-Based Small and Medium Enterprises in Migori County, Kenya <p>The study sought to analyse influence of agripreneurial orientation constructs on growth of cassava based small and medium enterprises in Migori County, Kenya. Data were collected using snow balling sampling method from 171 cassava agripreneurs. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and Probit model. The study revealed that the respondents were middle aged (43 years), majority were female (78.4%.), had reached formal education (52%), average age of enterprises was 10years and average quantity of cassava traded per week of 29 Kg, average number of workers employed of 2 persons while the average distance to the market being 3Km. The important and statistically significant variables that influence growth of cassava based small and medium enterprises include: Education level (p&lt;0.05), number of Skilled employees (<em>P</em>&lt;.01), owner experience (<em>P</em>&lt;.1), number of trained employees (<em>P</em>&lt;0.01), enterprise age (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05), competitive aggressiveness (<em>P</em>&lt;.01) and agripreneurial orientation (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05) with Psedudo <em>R</em><sup>2</sup> value (.5946). According to these findings, the study recommends that the government should empower cassava based agripreneurs through training, trade fairs and capacity building to change the mind-set of the agripreneurs while providing incentives in venturing into cassava for the growth of the agrienterprises as well as individual growth. The government of Kenya can achieve these through its agricultural organizations with collaborations with Non-Governmental organizations and other stakeholders.</p> Gad Matayo Sambrumo, Margaret Wanjiru Ngigi, Benjamin K. Mutai ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 20 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Carrot Productivity under Various Levels of Irrigation and Fertilization <p>Carrot (<em>Daucus carota L</em>.) is normally grown under irrigation system. In Tanzania, carrot productivity is still low, mainly due to poor agronomic practices as a result of limited information on optimal levels of irrigation water that enhance crop production. Thus, a study was conducted to evaluate the interactions between various irrigation levels under drip irrigation and soil-based NPK fertilizer for optimal growth, yield, and sugar content of carrots in Morogoro, Tanzania. The crop water requirement was calculated in terms of crop evapotranspiration (ET<sub>c</sub>) as the product of ET<sub>o</sub>, Kc, and the ground cover reduction factor (K<sub>r</sub>). Soil-based fertilizer was applied at a level of 150 kg NPK ha<sup>-1</sup>, while irrigation levels applied were 100, 80, and 60% of ET<sub>c</sub>. It was found that the growth, yield, and sugar content of carrots were affected differently at various irrigation water (IW) application levels. The growth parameters of carrots improved consistently to optimum IW levels. Further, the highest yield of 33.0 tons ha<sup>-1</sup> of carrots was obtained under 100% of IW, and the lowest yield of 18.47 tons ha<sup>-1</sup> was obtained at 60% of IW. The 60 and 80% IW level yields did not differ significantly (p&gt;0.05). Carrots grown at a deficit irrigation water level of 80% were found to have the highest content of sugar. Therefore, for optimal growth and yield, an irrigation level of 100% is recommended for carrots. However, for high sugar content, an irrigation level of 80% is recommended.</p> A. Ciza, F. R. Silungwe, N. I. Kihupi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 02 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Type and Dose of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi to Growth and Yield of Citronella Grass (Cymbopogon nardus L.) in Former Mining Area Land in Sawahlunto <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The study aimed to determine the type and dose of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to growth and yield of citronella grass (<em>Cymbopogon nardus</em> L.) in former mining area land in Sawahlunto, West Sumatera, Indonesia.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; Factorial completely randomized design.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>The research was conducted in shade net house of Faculty of Agriculture, Andalas University, Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia from September 2021-January 2022.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Two factors were used in the study. First factor was types of&nbsp; Arbuscular mychorrhizal fungi (AMF), <em>Glomus</em> sp., <em>Gigapora</em> sp. dan multispores (<em>Glomus</em> sp. + <em>Gigaspora</em> sp.) and the second factor was AMF doses that consisted of&nbsp; four degrees, 5 g, 10 g, 15 g and 20 g/plant. The experiment result was analyzed by using Analysis of variance (ANOVA) in 5% and continued&nbsp; by using Duncan’s New Multople Range Test (DNMRT) in 5%.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Type of AMF multispores in 20 g/ plant could number of tiller. Dose 20 g/plant could plant height and number of leaves. AMF multispores only increased number of tiller and net assimilation rate.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Type and dose of AMF affected the agronomy parameter of citronella grass in former mining area land.</p> Agung Ramadhano, Indra Dwipa, Etti Swasti ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 21 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Combined Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization and Seeding Rate on Regional Wheat Yield and Yield Components in Bangladesh <p>Seed rate and nitrogen fertilization are two main critical factors that affect wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum</em> L.) growth and yield. But a little knowledge on the interaction effects of these two factors in wheat cultivation under course, strong acidic nutrient deficit soil condition aimed us to conduct this research. We grew wheat at the field laboratory of the department of Agronomy and Haor Agriculture, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet-3100, Bangladesh, during crop growing period (November-March) of wheat 2021-2022 with split plot design assigning seed rate (100, 120, 140 &amp; 160 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) in main plot and nitrogen fertilizer (0, 120, 140, 160 &amp; 180 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) in sub plot. The maximum grain yield (3.0 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) was obtained at 140 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and 160 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> seeding rate and nitrogen fertilization respectively. Whereas, the minimum grain yield (1.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) was recorded in control treatment (100 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> seed with zero nitrogen). The highest value of the entire yield contributing parameters i.e. effective tillers plant<sup>-1</sup> (2.9), spike length (14.7 cm), spikelet spike<sup>-1</sup> (17.0), florets spike<sup>-1</sup> (52.3), grain spike<sup>-1</sup> (51.0) and 1000 seed weight (42.6 g) were recorded at 140 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and 160 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> seeding rate and nitrogen fertilization respectively and the values were increased with the increase of seeding rate and nitrogen fertilization rate upto 140 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and 160 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> respectively then declined. The growth parameter i.e. plant height (114.1 cm) increased with the increase of seeding rate 160 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and nitrogen fertilization upto 160 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and the minimum value (54.1 cm) was recorded at control treatment.</p> Kishore Kumar Sarker, Mozammel Hoque, Akhi Paul Chowdhury ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 28 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Association of Two Unknown Pythium spp. without Forming Sexual Structures on Root Rot of Hydroponically Grown Welsh onion <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Aim of this study was to elucidate association of <em>Pythium</em> isolates without forming sexual structures on root rot of hydroponically grown Welsh onion, as well as to clarify their taxonomic positions.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Commercial hydroponic greenhouses in Hiroshima Prefecture, Hiroshima Prefectural Technology Research Institute, and Osaka Metropolitan University, between March 2020 and March 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Total 2,966 isolates of <em>Pythium</em>-like organs were isolated from the plant roots during the survey period. All the isolates didn’t form any sexual organs, and were separated into three groups based on colony patterns on agar media such as cornmeal agar. Among of them, 236 isolates were equally selected from each three groups. Since two of the three groups were thought to be first records on Welsh onion<em>,</em> 17 representative isolates from the two groups were examined on morphology, hyphal growth response to temperatures and sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and mitochondrial <em>COI</em>. Inoculation tests were performed on Welsh onion seedlings under a hydroponic condition by using one representative isolate from each group.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The three groups were identified as<em> Pythium</em> Cluster B2a sp., B1d sp. and Clade A sp. on sequences of ITS and <em>COI</em>, respectively. <em>Pythium</em> isolates belonged to <em>Pythium</em> Cluster B1d and Clade A showed similar morphology and hyphal growth response to temperatures each other. Inoculation tests confirmed that both representative isolates from two groups cause roots rot of hydroponically grown Welsh onion 14 days after their inoculation. <em>Pythium </em>Cluster B1d showed stronger pathogenicity than <em>Pythium</em> Clade A.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The present study firstly demonstrated that <em>Pythium</em> Cluster B1d sp. and Clade A sp. which don’t form any sexual structures associate root rot of hydroponically grown Welsh onion.</p> S. Shimizu, M. Tojo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Environmentally Friendly Agent Against Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda): Antifeedant Potency of Mentha spicata Aqueous Extracts <p>The rising trends of insect resistance, coupled with escalating environmental pollution from synthetic pesticides, heighten the need for a more effective and, non-hazardous agents to control insect/pests. Different aqueous extracts of <em>Mentha spicata </em>were screened for their phytochemical constituents and their antifeedant activities against <em>Spodoptera frugiperda</em>. Screening of the different aqueous extracts of <em>Mentha spicata </em>obtained by cold maceration revealed the presence of phenolics and tannins. The concentration of phenols and tannins in the water, glycerine, and glycerine plus water (glycerine-water) extracts were significantly different (p &lt; 0.05). <em>Mentha spicata </em>water extract had a greater antifeedant activity against <em>Spodoptera frugiperda</em> as compared to glycerine and glycerine-water (60:40, v/v) extracts at a concentration of 5g/100 mL. The estimated % antifeedant activity recorded were 97 as against 8.21 and 49.81, respectively. Aqueous neem seed water extracts gave an estimated % antifeedant activity of 93.07 and it served as a control. Saponins were absent in all extracts and only water extracts had alkaloids present. The simple, non-hazardous, and cost-saving extraction method demonstrated could be applied in both commercial and subsistent farming to counteract the damnable effects of <em>Spodoptera frugiperda</em> infestation.</p> Emmanuel Peprah-Yamoah, Ebenezer Afrifa-Yamoah, Hayford Ofori, Eric Adua ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 22 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Microbial Assessment of Slaughter Slabs at the Central Slaughterhouse of Ado Ekiti <p>This study was aimed at assessing the presence of microbes in the selected slaughter slabs in other to inform the Animal scientists, Public health workers, Butchers and Meat vendors to know the risk pose to human health with contaminated meat.</p> <p>A total of 50 sterile swab sticks were used to collect the samples from five abattoir slaughter slabs surfaces in Ado-Ekiti central abattoir with ten swab samples from each slaughter slab. After collection the samples were immediately transported to laboratory for microbiological studies. Trypticase-soya-agar (TSA) was used as medium for the samples, while chloramphenicol was used in replacement to trophic bacteria and Sabouraud-glucosea-gar (SGA) for fungi. The incubation of Petri dishes were set at 37ºC for 48 – 72hrs while daily observation of the cultures were carried out with the use of stereoscopic microscope for the presence of fungal mycelium and or bacterial colonies. The results revealed that bacterial count mean value was 1.83 × 10<sup>5</sup> CFU/ml and fungal count mean value was 0.59 × 10<sup>5</sup> CFU/ml. A total of eight strains of bacteria comprises of gram positive and gram negative bacteria from all the samples were isolated, <em>Staphylococcus</em> <em>aureus </em>had the highest percentage of occurrences (33%), followed by <em>Escherichia coli </em>(26%), <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> (19%), while other prevalence bacteria have 5% each. In the fungi samples, isolation of four strains were carried out, from all the total fungal count, <em>Aspergillus flavus </em>had the highest number of occurrence with approximately 40%, <em>Penicillium </em>spp had 28%, and 8% occurrence for the lowest fungal count. It is shown in the study that the meat has higher contamination potential from the slaughter slab surfaces. With the result shown, contamination rate could be attributed to poor sanitation level, and proper measure and attention was not given to hygienic practices in the Central abattoir in Ado Ekiti. This then called for butchers education on the importance of practicing good hygiene, handling of meat with modern techniques and encouragement of good sanitation in the abattoirs.</p> E. O. Arire, A. O. Sulaimon, C. M. Samuel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 22 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Different Nitrogen Concentration on Plant Growth, Yield and Quality of Sweet Potato (Ipomea Batatas [L.] Lam) Cultivated in Soilless Culture System <p>The soilless culture system effectively promotes plant growth by facilitating water and nutrient uptake by plant roots. To increase sweet potato production (Ipomoea batatas), we developed containerized planting in which tuberous roots were grown in solid substrates in the polybags supplied with a nutrient solution through an irrigation system. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different nitrogen concentrations on sweet potato plant growth performance, yield, and tuber quality cultivated using a soilless culture system. The experimental setup included five treatments (T1-T5) with different levels of N (0-50-150-200-250 mg L<sup>-1</sup>), which were mixed in the nutrient solution, while P and K levels were held constant at 150 and 200 mg L<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp;respectively. After three months of cultivation, there were significant differences between treatments in terms of plant growth performance, yield and tuber quality. Plants cultivated in the 250 mg L<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp;of N showed the highest growth rate including plant height, shoot and leaves fresh weight, number of tillers, SPAD values, number of leaves, and diameter of tillers compared to other treatments. Data also revealed that the highest tuber yield was obtained from plants treated with 200 mg L<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp;of N. Tuber harvested from the treatment of 200 mg L<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp;of N showed the best quality in terms of Brix value, moisture content and tuber shape and length. Therefore, planting sweet potatoes using a soilless culture system is recommended with the application of 200 mg L<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp;of N to obtain the optimum plant performance in terms of growth, yields, and tuber quality.</p> Yaseer Suhaimi, R. Izyani, N. Noor Ismawaty, M. N. Mohd Effendi, Z. A. Siti Nurzahidah, A. L. Zakry Al-Asyraf, T. Muhammad Faidhi, S. Noor Safuraa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 29 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Small Ruminants Coccidiosis in High Altitude Region of Iran <p>Coccidiosis (<em>Eimeria</em> spp.) is a parasite disease in small ruminants that causes diarrhea and reduced economic benefits. The purpose of this epidemiological study was to use microscopical and molecular assays to detect coccidia prevalence and isolate species-specific <em>Eimeria</em> from sheep and goats kept in a common pan in the central Zagros region. This region is a mountainous and cold region which its southern counties are warmer than other districts. Throughout the course of several seasons, 1200 fecal samples were obtained from three age groups (less than six months, six to twelve months, and more than six months). Oocytes were counted using saturated saline floating and modified MacMaster techniques and the physical characteristics of sporulated <em>Eimeria</em> oocytes were used to identify them. <em>Eimeria</em> infection was shown to be more prevalent in sheep than in goats, with the highest prevalence in spring and the lowest in winter. Females and animals younger than 6 months were similarly found to be more susceptible to coccidiosis than males and older animals (P&lt;0.05). In comparison to the southern area, the western and eastern counties had the highest rates of oocyst excretion in sheep and goats, respectively. In addition, a total of fourteen <em>Eimeria</em> species were isolated, including the highly pathogenic <em>Eimeria granulosa</em> for sheep and <em>E. jolchijevi </em>for goats. These findings explain how coccidia prevalence varies with age, season, and geographic direction, and use of PCR to rule out the possibility of co-infection between sheep and goats kept in the same stall.</p> Maryam Karimzadeh, Gholamali Kojouri, Hamidreza Azizi, Yaser Pirali, Behrouz Shiran ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Physical Methods on Date Fruits Insects and Microbes <p><strong>Aims:</strong> Siwi dates fruits are infected with many pests, which leads to a high deficiency in the quality and safety of dates. The study aimed to investigate the possibility of three physical methods (freezing, gamma radiation, and ozone) as suitable methods for pest control.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Original research.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration Study:</strong>&nbsp; The study was conducted in Giza, Egypt in season 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>: </strong>In the first method, the date fruits were frozen at -18⁰C at different times (15, 30, 60,120,180, 240,300, and 360 min). In the second method, the date fruits were exposed to gamma rays in different doses as 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, and 700 grays. In the third method, the date fruits were exposed to different ozone concentrations of 200, 400, 600, and 800 ppm at different exposure periods (1, 2, 3, and 4 hrs.).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: </strong>The data showed that freezing at -18⁰C for 5 hrs, radiation at a dose of 700 grays, and ozone at 800ppm for 4 hrs controlled insect stages and the microbial load of the sample date fruits, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong> The obtained data revealed that freezing or ozone treatments were the suitable methods followed by radiation.</p> M. T. M. Assous, W. K. M. El-Shafei, L. M. Lewaa, E. G. Gadalla ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 27 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 An Assessment of Farmers’ Training Needs on Drought Management Strategies for Improved Crops and Livestock Production in Northern Nigeria <p>The study assessed the farmers’ training needs on drought management strategies for improved crops and livestock production in Northern Nigeria Six Nigerian northern states were sampled based on the intensity of drought. 792 farmers were randomly selected for the study. Primary and secondary data were collected using questionnaire with trained enumerators. Validation of questionnaire for data collection and reliability test were carried out. The results revealed 38.5 years as the farmers’ mean age with household size of 9 persons. 84.5% of the farmers had formal education and average of 5.27ha of cultivated farm land. 80% of the farmers experienced reduction in crops’ yields and livestock production with higher income loss in livestock production. This is based on Adopter Perception Theory which argues that the adoption process starts with the perception that there is need to innovate. Researches had established that drought affect almost all agricultural activities. Finding revealed that the mean annual yield for the crop sector before drought occurrence varied between 1.12 tons/ha and 0.41 tons/ha, with a maximum of 50 tons/ha. Tuber crops production ranked first, while legumes took the last position for the period under consideration in this study. Therefore, under the crop sector, cereal crops’ farmers suffered the highest loss (0.43tons/ha) due to drought occurrence, while Tuber crop followed closely with 0.35tons/ha loss. In case of livestock, the mean annual loss is 13 and maximum of 330 birds but in terms of income loss, livestock was more than crop. Most farmers require training in the maintenance of water supply systems, drought risk management and access to drought-related information. This study provides basis for tackling the effects of drought in Northern Nigeria. It identifies training needs of farmers with a view to mitigate the menace of drought to enhance yield in the areas of crops and livestock production.</p> Onemayin David Jimoh, Martins Yusuf Otache, Adeolu Richard Adesiji, Rotimi Saka Olaleye, James Agajo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 18 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Agronomic Performance of Rice Seeds Coated with N-Enriched Organomineral Fertilizer <p>Seed coating with silicate rock-basis organomineral fertilizer (OMF) was proposed as an appropriate method to improve the productivity and profitability of rice farming. This research aimed to evaluate the growth and yield components of rice grown from coated seeds with N-enriched OMF. The coated seeds of two rice varieties, i.e., Trisakti (T) and Nutri Zinc (NZ) were tested in separate experimental sets. A randomized block design was applied for each experiment with the treatment consisting of non-coated seed (NCS), coated seeds containing 4.5% N (CS-1), 7.8% N (CS-2), and 9.0% N (CS-3) in 3 blocks. The coating material of OMF was a mixture of 90% basaltic rock and 10% rock phosphate, enriched with N accordingly to the treatment; and the weight ratio of seed to OMF was about 1:16. The coated seeds were planted directly to the ground (without sowing and transplanting steps), and only NCS was fertilized with NPK (15:15:15) equivalent to 300 kg. ha<sup>-1</sup>. Results reveal that there was no significant difference in growth components (number of tillers and the weight of top-biomass) and quality of rice grains (weight of 1,000 grains) for the plants of coated and non-coated seeds. Enriching OMF with N up to 9% consistently improved the total yield of rice. Therefore, seed coating with OMF containing about 9% N was an appropriate method to optimize rice yield.</p> Joko Priyono, Anak Agung Ketut Sudharmawan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 In-vitro Biocontrol of Sugarcane Stem Borer (Eldana saccharina Walker) with Essential Oils from Aromatic Plants <p><strong>Study Design and Objectives:</strong> Sugar cane production is threatened by the devastating action of the larval populations of <em>Eldana saccharina</em> Walker. Faced with this situation, the search for sustainable control solutions is a major challenge for sugar producers. This study contributes to the control of the larval populations of the pest through the use of formulations based on essential oils of local aromatic plants.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Bioassays on the survival of the larvae were therefore conducted in the laboratory at the Sucrivoire site in Zuénoula. The larvae obtained from the eggs, incubated for 5 days were reared on a nutritional medium and then transferred to empty dishes after one week. Essential oils from the hydrodistillation of three aromatic plants (<em>Cymbopogon citratus</em>,<em> Ocimum gratissimum</em> and <em>Zingiber officinale</em>) were used. Five concentrations of these essential oils (1000, 2000, 4000, 8000 and 10000-ppm) were tested by direct contact on batches of 10 larvae for a total of 30 larvae/concentration. Dead larvae were counted daily and the mortality rate was calculated after 24, 48 and 72 hours of exposure.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> As early as 24 hours, larval mortality was significant (<em>P</em>&lt;0.001) from 2000-ppm for <em>Cymbopogon citratus</em> and <em>Ocimum gratissimum</em> essential oils. They caused larval mortality of 63.33 and 80% respectively. <em>Zingiber officinale</em> induced a significant mortality of 80% from 4000-ppm. After 72 hours of exposure of the larvae to the essential oils, the mortality rate increased significantly with the concentration (<em>P</em>&lt;0.001). The lowest lethal concentrations for 50 and 90% (841.77 and 1905.06 ppm, respectively) were obtained with the essential oil of <em>Ocimum gratissimum</em>.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The use of essential oils of <em>Cymbopogon citratus</em>, <em>Ocimum gratissimum</em> and <em>Zingiber officinale</em> can help to control <em>Eldana saccharina</em> Walker larval borers for better sugarcane production.</p> Ouattara Dadjo, Kouamé Konan Didier, Johnson Félicia, Kassi Koffi Fernand Jean Martial, Yao Kouadio Jacques-Edouard, Yao Kouakou, Koné Daouda ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 25 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect and Evaluation of Zeolite and Biohumus on Biological Indicators of Irrigated Seed-gray Soils <p>The effect of zeolite and biohumus on the biological activity of irrigated grass-gray soils under beans of the subtropical zone was studied. It was determined that the biological activity of the irrigated grass-gray soils changes depending on the growth phase of the bean, the applied biohumus and zeolite rate. Based on complex biological indicators (activity of enzymes, the number of microorganisms, abundance of carbon dioxide released from the soil, intensity of the nitrification process, intensity of decomposition of cellulose), bio-diagnostics of irrigated meadow-gray soils were given, an integral indicator of the biological condition of the soil was determined, and a biological assessment was carried out.</p> <p>The purpose of the work is to determine the effect of biohumus and zeolite on the biological activity of irrigated grass-gray soils used under the bean plant, and to conduct a biological evaluation based on complex biological indicators.</p> <p>The research object is irrigated meadow-gray soils (in WRB - Irragic Calsisols) of the subtropical zone, various doses of biohumus and zeolite, small bean-mung bean (<em>Vigna Angularis</em>) plant. Scheme of the experiment: 1. control (without fertilizer); 2. biohumus 5 t/ha; 3. zeolite 5 t/ha (clinoptilolite); 4. biohumus 5 t/ha + zeolite 5 t/ha; 5. biohumus 7.5 t/ha; 6. zeolite 7.5 t/ha; 4. biohumus 7.5 t/ha + zeolite 7.5 t/ha.</p> <p>Chemical composition of zeolite: Na<sub>2</sub>O-0.55; MgO-1.49; Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-11.86; SiO<sub>2</sub>-66,0; P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>-0.11; SO<sub>3</sub>-0.01; K<sub>2</sub>O -9.02; CaO-6.61; TiO<sub>2</sub>-0.51%; MnO-0.07; Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-3.77.</p> <p>Chemical composition of biohumus: humus 16%, pH 7, total azot (N) 3.2%, total phosphorus (P) 2.6%, total potassium (K) 2%, Ca 4.3%, Mg 0.6%, Fe 0.45%, Cu 0.5%, C:N 13.</p> <p>Mathematical-statistical calculation of the numbers obtained as a result of the research was carried out based on the Anova programma. The obtained results show a significant difference between the variants and compared to the control.</p> V. Isaqova ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 27 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of Non-Eroding Discharge Based on the Threshold Velocity of Particle Motion and Soil Texture Triangle in Irrigation Furrows <p>One of the common methods to prevent the erosion of the furrows’ bed is to enter the water flow with a discharge less than the maximum of eroding discharge. Accordingly, it is important to determine the threshold velocity of the bed particle motion. In the current study, the average diameter of particles in each soil class was determined using 12 available classes in the soil texture triangle and then in an irrigation furrow with a fixed bed and triangular cross section, the threshold velocities were calculated using the equations provided by El-Zaemey, Novak, Nalluri and Charles Heinz Bong and compared them with proposed values of Walker et al and the US Department of Soil Conservation. The results were also compared with the Shields graph by determining the Shields parameter and boundary layer Reynolds number in the slope range of 0.5% to 1% for each soil texture class. A graph was presented based on all the above mentioned methods to simplify the use of the results. In addition to specifying the difference in velocity values predicted ​​by different methods, the graph can be also used to determine the maximum permissible velocity in furrows.</p> Nazhad Khairullah, Saina, Seyyed Valilou, Mir Mahmood ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Direction and Distance of Moringa oleifera on Growth and Yield of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) <p>A field experiment was conducted at the moringa-based experimental farm of the Department of Agroforestry and Environment, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU), Gazipur from November 2020 to September 2021. The aim of the study was to assess how well cabbage performed and adapted to various orientations and distances from the moringa tree. The experiment was carried out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Four different directions along with one control plot were used as factor A and different distances from tree base was treated as factor B. The data of some ecophysiological parameters like maximum light intensity and soil temperature were noticed in south direction and the widest distance from tree base. The highest soil moisture was found at north direction. Most of the growth parameters showed better performance in open field compared to shade condition. In the case of interaction effect, the south direction and the widest distance (180 cm) from moringa tree base showed the highest number of outer leaves, head length, width, head diameter, head length, and head weight compared to other directions and distances. Concurrently, the maximum total yield and marketable yield were recorded from 180 cm in south direction whereas the lowest yield was found at the closest distance (80 cm) and east direction. The marketable yield of south, west, north, and east directions were reduced by 8.43, 14.87, 23.86 and 31.52% as compared to open field. At 130 cm and 80 cm distance the yield was reduced by 16.42 and 32.26% as compared to 180 cm distance from tree base. The current findings suggested that cabbage may be grown in partial shade in moringa-based agroforestry production systems without enduring significant yield losses.</p> Tamanna Sharmin, Shohana Parvin, Md. Mainuddin Miah, Satyen Mondal, Noor Shaila Sarmin, Sridebi Das, Md Azizul Hoque ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer Management for Boro Rice Cultivation in a Single Boro Cropping Area <p><strong>Aims:</strong> In any agricultural production system, combining organic and chemical fertilizers into the soil is regarded as a useful management practice since it boosts soil fertility and crop growth. The goal of the current study was to ascertain the effects of combined organic and inorganic fertilizer treatment on the yield contributing traits, yield, nutrient uptake and nutrient use efficiency of BRRI dhan89 in a single <em>Boro </em>cropping area.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>With three replications, the experiment was set up in a two factor RCB design. Organic fertilizer treatment was regarded as Factor-a, while inorganic fertilizer as Factor-b.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>The experiment was conducted in a farmer's field in Nagarkanda, Faridpur, Bangladesh from December 2021 to May 2022.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Factor-a comprises two treatments named cowdung (CD) and poultry manure (PM). Factor-b comprises five treatments named T<sub>0 </sub>(control), T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub>, T<sub>3</sub>, and T<sub>4</sub>. In the main field, organic fertilizers were used just two weeks prior to transplanting. In all inorganic fertilizer treatments, Urea top dressed in three installments at 15 DAT, 30 DAT and 5 days before panicle initiation. In T4 treatment, MoP split at two installments, one during final land preparation and another 5 days before panicle initiation.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The highest no. of effective tillers, yield contributing traits, grain yield, straw yield, nutrient concentration (%) in both grain and straw, nutrient uptake by grain and straw observed in organic fertilizer treatment PM, inorganic fertilizer treatment T<sub>4</sub> and treatment interaction PM × T<sub>4</sub> whereas the lowest found in CD, T<sub>0</sub> and CD × T<sub>0</sub>. The maximum nutrient use efficiency was recorded by PM × T<sub>4 </sub>treatment interaction and minimum in CD × T<sub>1</sub>.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Comparing all of the treatments employed in the current study, the treatment interaction PM × T<sub>4</sub> generated the best results for BRRI dhan89 in a single Boro cropping area.</p> Md. Asadulla Al Galib, Sumaiya Farzana, Md. Khalid Hasan Tarek, Muhammad Tofajjal Hossen, Most. Tafrin Jahan Ety, Tusher Chakrobarty ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 09 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy of Biopesticide Formula Containing Streptomyces sp. and Trichoderma sp. against Southern Green Stink Bug (Nezara viridula) on Soybean (Glycine max L.) <p><em>Streptomyces</em> sp. and <em>Trichoderma</em> sp. are soil microorganisms isolated from shallot fields that can act as biological agents and increase crop production. <em>Nezara viridula</em>, the southern green stink bug, is the leading pest of soybean during the generative period, which can cause damage up to 80%. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of a liquid biopesticide formula using a mixture of coconut water and potato extract containing <em>Streptomyces</em> sp. and <em>Trichoderma </em>sp. This study used a randomized block design. The first factor was the time of application and the second factor was the concentration level. There were 8 treatment combinations and 2 controls. Each treatment combination was repeated three times. Probit LC<sub>50</sub> and LT<sub>50</sub> were performed to determine the effectiveness of biopesticides. The calculation of probit analysis obtained results of 84,443 ppm or about 84% for LC<sub>50</sub>, while the LT<sub>50</sub> analysis obtained results of 4.7 days.</p> Laksamana Agadhia Raharjo, Penta Suryaminarsih, Tri Mujoko, Noni Rahmadhini, Ramadhani Mahendra Kusuma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 10 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Use of Parthenogenetic Clones to Create Highly Heterogeneous Hybrids of the Silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) <p>Since the entire world's sericulture, to achieve maximum heterosis is based on the feeding of hybrids of only the first generation, therefore, operations for the preparation of pure hybrids are of particular importance. In Uzbekistan, the Sericulture Research Institute has developed new biotechnologies specifically to solve this problem, and genetically modified breeds and parthenogenetic clones have been created on their basis. The unfertilized eggs are thermally activated at t = 46°C for 18 minutes, and the reducing division of meiosis in the germ cells of the silkworm is hampered. As a result, the eggs remain with a diploid set of chromosomes and develop as zygotes. Since silkworm females are heterogamous by sex chromosomes, only female parthenogenetic clones develop from thermally activated eggs. Clonal-breed hybrids, characterized by increased viability of caterpillars – 93,5-98,0% (in the control – 90,0%), the high cocoon shell ratio – 22,1-23,8% (in the control – 22,5%), increased egg-bearing capacity - 622-639 pcs (in the control - 630 pcs), metric number of thread - 3344-4065 units (in the control - 3321), the synchronicity of caterpillar development, uniformity of cocoons, ease of preparation. The technology of thermal activation of unfertilized silkworm eggs for parthenogenetic development is not particularly difficult, therefore clones can reproduce the required number of generations and in an unlimited number of individuals. The second component for hybridization can be males of almost any breed. Clones, due to their genetic constancy, do not need breeding and breeding selection, they do not need to be divided by gender, because they are represented by only one female sex, and have high combinational ability and amicable development.</p> E. A. Larkina, B. A. Mirzakhodjaev, A. Mirzakhodjaev, U. T. Daniyarov, I. B. Radzhabov ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 17 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Gears and Modes of Exploitation of Edible Frogs in the Peri-Urban Localities of Man, Côte d'Ivoire <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The study carried out aimed to evaluate the modes of exploitation of edible frogs.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The present study was performed during the month of January to February 2022. The survey was conducted in the villages of Kassiapleu, Kouitongouiné and Gbangbégouiné. These villages are located in MAN (West of Côte d’Ivoire).</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Surveys have been carried out among actors exploiting this animal resource. The study involved 210 consumers and 15 frog harvesters in the locality of MAN. A well-structured questionnaire provided data on fishing techniques and frog consumption patterns.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> This study reveals that there are two main fishing methods: arrow fishing (57.1%) and hook and line fishing (42.9%). The catches are made in different humid ecological zones and the exploitation is only intended for local consumption. The smoked form is the most popular with consumers (59.5%). The majority of respondents consume this meat because of the taste (83.3%) compared to that of chicken (44.8%) and fish (31.4%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In view of these results obtained, the establishment of a rational exploitation strategy must be considered for the conservation of edible frog species.</p> Ble Yatanan Casimir, Zouh Bi Zahouli Faustin, Kouadio Kouakou Norbert, Dadie Adjehi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extracts from Two Species of Corchorus Genus: Corchorus aestuans L. and Corchorus olitorius L. (Malvaceae) <p><strong>Aims: </strong><em>Corchorus aestuans </em>and <em>Corchorus olitorius </em>are two species of the genus commonly mentioned in Côte d'Ivoire as medicinal plants whose leaves decoctions are used to treat various diseases. To avoid cases of intoxication in traditional treatments, this study evaluates the acute toxicity of these plant species by having mice gorge on increasing doses of crude aqueous extract.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> This study was carried out in the Pharmacognosy Laboratory of Félix HOUPHOUËT-BOIGNY University (Côte d'Ivoire), between march 2016 and september 2016.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> To assess the acute toxicity of the two extracts, we used 110 mice of SWISS breed. These animals aged four to six weeks were of both sexes (55 mice for each sex) and weighed between 13 and 26 g. Before the manipulations, the animals were fasted 12 hours before being divided into 11 batches of 10 mice receiving extract 1 (<em>Corchorus aestuans</em>) and extract 2 (<em>Corchorus olitorius</em>). We observed the effets of each phytomedecine on mice in different batches.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Aqueous extracts of <em>Corchorus aestuans </em>and <em>Corchorus olitorius </em>(Malvaceae), administered orally, exert a dose-response effect. Concerning toxicity activities, <em>Corchorus olitorius </em>is not toxic. However,<em> Corchorus aestuans </em>is slightly toxic in the conditions of this study. The dose which kills half of the animals (LD <sub>50 </sub>) is 3999.93 mg/kg by oral voice (vo).&nbsp; This dose is the threshold of toxicity of the plant in the conditions of this study. Fortunately, this toxicity threshold is not accessible in therapy. The phytomedicine, in the conditions of use in traditional medicine in Côte d'Ivoire, is not toxic.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The two plant species thus offer an interesting margin of safety, which is reassuring as to the use of the decoction, for the treatment of various pathologies.</p> Ta Bi Irié Honoré, Monyn Ebalah Delphine, Doh Koffi Stéphane, N'guessan Koffi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 09 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Growth Performance, Haematological, Serum Indices and Histopathology of Finisher Broiler Chickens Offered Nutritional Supplement of Comfrey (Symphytum officinale L) Leaves Extract <p>Present study was carried out to investigate the effect of nutritional supplement of Comfrey (<em>Symphytum officinale </em>L) leaves extract on the performance, haematological, serum indices and histopathology of finisher broilers. 200g of Comfrey symphytum leaves were squeezed in 1 liter of H<sub>2</sub>O with a juicer to produce comfrey symphytum leaves extract. The leaves extract were further mixed (diluted) in clean drinking water at the rate of 0ml/liter of H<sub>2</sub>O, 50ml/liter of H<sub>2</sub>O, 100ml/liter of H<sub>2</sub>O and 150ml/liter of H<sub>2</sub>O designated as T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>3</sub>, T<sub>4</sub> and T<sub>5</sub>. T<sub>2</sub> was given conventional supplement (Divertamin). Five groups of 30 broiler chicks (28 days old) of Agritech breed were randomly assigned to one of the supplementary Comfrey symphytum leaves extract and the conventional supplement for 28 days in a completely randomized design. Each group was subdivided into three replicates of 10 birds each. The birds were fed normal broiler finisher diet for all the groups. At the end of the 28 days feeding trial, performance indices result showed that T<sub>5</sub> (150ml extract/liter of H<sub>2</sub>O) gave best value (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05) for feed conversion ratio, average weight changes and average daily weight gain but statistically similar (P&gt;0.05) to the control. The indices for economics of production showed that T<sub>5 </sub>had high earnings for revenue and gross margin with reduced cost/kg weight gain. The haematological and serum indices were not affected significantly (<em>P</em>&gt;0.05). Histopathological examination revealed that comfrey leaves extract caused effaced tissue stromal elements, congestion and marked cellularity of the liver. It was concluded that Comfrey symphytum leaves extract could be used as a nutritional supplement to improve performance of broiler finishers at 100 - 150ml of extract/liter of H<sub>2</sub>O due to its cost effectiveness and increased revenue and profit margin.</p> A. C. Esiegwu, T. K. O. Obih ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 26 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Role of RNA –Binding Proteins in Controlling Cell to Cell Communication and Molecular Trafficking in Plants <p>Cell to Cell communication is the most important process in all living organisms. This communication network is essential for growth, differentiation, development and metabolic functions. As plant cell has a rigid cell wall so there are some special ways for using communication network through a special structure called Plasmodesmata. The messages from the DNA of dividing cells pass signals or messages to other cells through RNA molecules. But RNA molecules cannot pass independently to other cells, so some proteins are needed that are bound to RNA (RNA-binding Proteins). These proteins actually carry signals from one cell to another. In plants plasmodesmata is very small that carries only water and micronutrients. But it has been noted that its size is not constant but is very dynamic where their sizes can change according to their need. The role of plasmodesmata and RNA-binding proteins in communication as well as their roles in molecular trafficking have been discussed.</p> Satyesh Chandra Roy ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000