Asian Research Journal of Agriculture <div><strong>Asian Research Journal of Agriculture (ISSN: 2456-561X)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/ARJA/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in field of agricultural science. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.<br><br>This is an open-access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.<br><br> Subject matters include all areas of agricultural science viz., agronomy, agricultural chemistry, entomology, plant pathology, agricultural genomics, biology, chemistry, earth science, genetics &amp; plant breeding, stored products research, post harvest biology and technology, seed science, irrigation and drainage, plant physiology, soil classification, soil fertility, soil conservation, insect and pest control, animal husbandry, aquaculture, agricultural engineering, agricultural economics, agroecology, biotechnology, organic agriculture, biodynamic agriculture, agribusiness and other allied areas.</div> <p>Every issue will consist of a minimum of 5 papers. Each issue will be running, and all officially accepted manuscripts will be immediately published online. The state-of-the-art running issue concept gives authors the benefit of 'Zero Waiting Time' for the officially accepted manuscripts to be published. This journal is an international journal and its scope is not confined by the boundary of any country or region.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Asian Research Journal of Agriculture 2456-561X Effect of Agricultural Cooperative Membership on Willingness to Pay for Non-fatal Risk Reduction from COVID-19 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The recurring nature of the COVID-19 pandemic and the recent discovery of the Omicron variant in Nigeria, coupled with concerns about the specific roles and contributions of social institutions in redressing the spread of the virus, prompted this study. Thus, the study determined the willingness to pay for health risk reduction from Corona Virus (COVID-19); estimated the value of statistical case (VSC) and ascertained the effects of cooperative membership on the willingness to pay (WTP) for COVID-19 morbidity health risk reduction. Multi-stage sampling technique was deployed in selecting 149 cooperative and 130 non-cooperative members for the study, in Edu and Patigi Local Government Areas of Kwara State, Nigeria. To reach its conclusion, descriptive statistics, Levene’s test, t-test, chi-square, Probit analysis, propensity score matching, WTP and the value of statistical case were employed for data analysis. The study revealed that the typical cooperative member is willing to pay N1,638 per farming season to decrease his or her chance of falling sick from COVID-19 or averting non-fatal cases of COVID-19 by 1 in 10,000. In addition, the propensity score matching (PSM) estimation indicated that agricultural cooperative societies had effect on members, with the average member willing to pay N561.32 per season higher than the non-members. Arising from these results, it becomes imperative to consider integrating cooperative societies as complementary instrument for the prevention and control of COVID-19 pandemic. The estimated VSC further provides pecuniary basis and policy guidance for efficient allocation of resources for the mitigation and control of COVID-19.</p> <div id="urban_overlay">&nbsp;</div> <div id="urban_overlay" style="left: -10px; top: -10px; width: 0px; height: 0px;">&nbsp;</div> A. A. A. Coker T. Yusuf A. I. Oseghale A. O. Oladele B. A. Sule ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-13 2022-05-13 1 10 10.9734/arja/2022/v15i430161 Molecular Identification of Xa4 Resistance Gene to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in Cultivated Rice in Northwest Benin <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The aim of this study was to identify the cultivated rice varieties that were resistant to <em>Xanthomonas oryzae </em>pv.<em> oryzae (Xoo)</em> by molecular screening<em>. Xanthomonas oryzae </em>pv.<em> oryzae (Xoo)</em> was the causal agent of bacterial blight, in the department of Atacora in Benin.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics Applied to Genomics, between July 2021 and November 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Thirty-two rice accessions were collected in the department of Atacora and the IRBB4 isogenic line carrying Xa4 resistance gene, as a positive control, were screened using SSR marker. Genomic DNA was extracted from plants leaves. PCR using a pair of MP12 primers linked to the Xa4 gene were performed and amplified products were analyzed by electrophoresis in a 2% agarose gel.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Our results showed that a significant number of rice varieties grown in northern Benin were resistant to Xoo. 62.5% were resistant of which 70% were local varieties. Some of these resistant varieties (35%<em>) </em>were heterozygous (<em>Xa4/xa4) </em>and others were homozygous <em>(Xa4/Xa4). </em>10% had specific genotypes other than those expected, which showed the probability of existence new resistance alleles that need to be characterized.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This is the first time that a bacterial blight resistance gene has been identified in Beninese rice cultivation. This result will be very useful to rice breeders for developing elites resistant varieties through markers assisted selection programs.</p> G. Djedatin C. Nanoukon A. Missihoun M. Lomou P. Sedah C. Agbangla ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-19 2022-05-19 11 22 10.9734/arja/2022/v15i430162 Microbiological Assessment of Fishes Caught in the Two Major Fishing Ground in Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State (Water Works River and Ogbese River) <p>Microbial contamination of food is the main obstacle of ensuring food safety. For this, it’s paramount to ascertain the safety of fish caught in the major waters in Ado Ekiti( Water works and Ogbese river). 22 (11 each)fish sample was randomly caught from both rivers in Ado Ekiti Metropolis.The research was conducted in May,2021. After standard microbiological and biochemical Test. The total bacteria count (TBC) for all the fish samples ranged between 0.46 x 10<sup>4</sup> and 0.95 x 10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g . Out of the 22 fish samples analyses for TBC, a sample from Water works dam had the highest number of bacteria with 0.95 x 10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g. The Ogbese sample 4 had the lowest isolation with 0.46 x 10<sup>4</sup> cfu/g. The study demonstrated the occurrence of bacterial isolates such as <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Enterobacter aerogenes</em>,<em>Staphylococcus aureus,Bacillus subtili, Micrococcus luteus</em> and <em>Proteus vulgaris</em> bacteria. This analysis indicated the incidence of fish contamination. These isolates are potential pathogens and their presence can pose health risks to humans especially immunocompromised individuals and children in particular when the levels of <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>in the fish is considerably high, and the fish is not properly processed or cooked. Public education on the need for proper environmental sanitation to reduce bacteria load should be emphasized by the State government and sanction to be imposed on defaulters. Good hygienic practice aimed at minimizing the microbial load of fish must be ensured.</p> Akomolede Olumide Olawole Awoniyi Olakunle Oluwaseun Akinnate Ayodeji Samuel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-03 2022-06-03 23 30 10.9734/arja/2022/v15i430163 Abundance and Diversity of Coccinellid Predators in Rice Field Ecosystem in Payakumbuh District, Indonesia <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The study aimed to study the abundance and biodiversity of Coccinellid predators in rice field Ecosystem in Payakumbuh District, Lima Puluh Kota Regency, West Sumatera, &nbsp;Indonesia.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; Purposive random sampling.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>The research was conducted in rice field of Payakumbuh District, Lima Puluh Kota Regency, West Sumatera and Laboratory of Pest, Faculty of Agriculture, Riau University, Pekanbaru, Indonesia from January to April 2022.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Purposive random sampling was used in the research. Three rice fields in Payakumbuh District was chosen as sampling locations. Sweep net method was using to collect the coccinellid and the collected coccinellids were identified in Pest Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Riau University, Pekanbaru, Indonesia. The data was analyzed by using Shannon-Winner diversity index to analyze biodiversity and evenness index.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>30 individuals of three species of coccinelid predators were found in rice field ecosystem in Payakumbuh district. The species were <em>Micraspis lineata </em>(20 individuals)<em>, Menochilus sexmaculatus </em>(9 individuals) and <em>Coleophora bisselata </em>(1 individual)<em>. </em>The species diversity index (H’) and species evenness index (E) were 0.73 and 0.66 respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The diversity of coccinellid predators in rice field in Payakumbuh district was quite stable and more stable.</p> Pajri Ananta Yudha Indra Dwipa Dedi Azwardi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-08 2022-06-08 31 35 10.9734/arja/2022/v15i430164 In-vitro Evaluation of Three Conservation Methods of Probiotics from 42-day-old Tropical Calves <p><strong>Aims:</strong> The conservation of probiotics is of great importance due to the microorganism’s viability; therefore, their properties and benefits depend on it. In this work, it was studied three methods of conservation; refrigeration, cryopreservation, and lyophilization of two probiotics isolated from the rumen of 42 day-old calves, previously evaluated: Animal 1-day 42 (A1D42) and Animal 3-day 42 A3D42.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Laboratorio de Rumiología y Metabolismo Nutricional, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, between August 2020 and September 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> It was evaluated the viability of the probiotics after of 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of refrigeration, cryopreservation, and lyophilization as preservation methods. The effect of the lyophilized probiotic A1D42 on the digestibility <em>in vitro, </em>such as its effect on the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production was also determined.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Cryopreserved and lyophilization methods had better performance about the viability in both probiotics. A1D42 lyophilized maintained its viability (67%) until 60 days and after 90 days it was affected significantly. Despite the fact that VFA production <em>in vitro</em> did not increase with probiotic addiction, A1D42 significantly increased <em>in vitro</em> digestibility by up to 66%. The results demonstrated that lyophilization is the best method of conservation of probiotic production due to it preserves vial cells, as well as the properties and effects of the probiotic.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Therefore, lyophilized A1D42 probiotic can be used as an additive in calf diets, which could improve their digestibility, and, therefore, their weight gain, which could have a positive impact on animal production, in addition to the health benefits.</p> Sarahí Rodríguez-González Laura González-Dávalos Armando Shimada Ofelia Mora-Izaguirre ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-16 2022-06-16 36 44 10.9734/arja/2022/v15i430165 Influence of Agripreneurial Orientation Constructs on Growth of Cassava-Based Small and Medium Enterprises in Migori County, Kenya <p>The study sought to analyse influence of agripreneurial orientation constructs on growth of cassava based small and medium enterprises in Migori County, Kenya. Data were collected using snow balling sampling method from 171 cassava agripreneurs. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and Probit model. The study revealed that the respondents were middle aged (43 years), majority were female (78.4%.), had reached formal education (52%), average age of enterprises was 10years and average quantity of cassava traded per week of 29 Kg, average number of workers employed of 2 persons while the average distance to the market being 3Km. The important and statistically significant variables that influence growth of cassava based small and medium enterprises include: Education level (p&lt;0.05), number of Skilled employees (<em>P</em>&lt;.01), owner experience (<em>P</em>&lt;.1), number of trained employees (<em>P</em>&lt;0.01), enterprise age (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05), competitive aggressiveness (<em>P</em>&lt;.01) and agripreneurial orientation (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05) with Psedudo <em>R</em><sup>2</sup> value (.5946). According to these findings, the study recommends that the government should empower cassava based agripreneurs through training, trade fairs and capacity building to change the mind-set of the agripreneurs while providing incentives in venturing into cassava for the growth of the agrienterprises as well as individual growth. The government of Kenya can achieve these through its agricultural organizations with collaborations with Non-Governmental organizations and other stakeholders.</p> Gad Matayo Sambrumo Margaret Wanjiru Ngigi Benjamin K. Mutai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 45 55 10.9734/arja/2022/v15i430166 Carrot Productivity under Various Levels of Irrigation and Fertilization <p>Carrot (<em>Daucus carota L</em>.) is normally grown under irrigation system. In Tanzania, carrot productivity is still low, mainly due to poor agronomic practices as a result of limited information on optimal levels of irrigation water that enhance crop production. Thus, a study was conducted to evaluate the interactions between various irrigation levels under drip irrigation and soil-based NPK fertilizer for optimal growth, yield, and sugar content of carrots in Morogoro, Tanzania. The crop water requirement was calculated in terms of crop evapotranspiration (ET<sub>c</sub>) as the product of ET<sub>o</sub>, Kc, and the ground cover reduction factor (K<sub>r</sub>). Soil-based fertilizer was applied at a level of 150 kg NPK ha<sup>-1</sup>, while irrigation levels applied were 100, 80, and 60% of ET<sub>c</sub>. It was found that the growth, yield, and sugar content of carrots were affected differently at various irrigation water (IW) application levels. The growth parameters of carrots improved consistently to optimum IW levels. Further, the highest yield of 33.0 tons ha<sup>-1</sup> of carrots was obtained under 100% of IW, and the lowest yield of 18.47 tons ha<sup>-1</sup> was obtained at 60% of IW. The 60 and 80% IW level yields did not differ significantly (p&gt;0.05). Carrots grown at a deficit irrigation water level of 80% were found to have the highest content of sugar. Therefore, for optimal growth and yield, an irrigation level of 100% is recommended for carrots. However, for high sugar content, an irrigation level of 80% is recommended.</p> A. Ciza F. R. Silungwe N. I. Kihupi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-02 2022-07-02 56 68 10.9734/arja/2022/v15i430167 Effect of Type and Dose of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi to Growth and Yield of Citronella Grass (Cymbopogon nardus L.) in Former Mining Area Land in Sawahlunto <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The study aimed to determine the type and dose of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to growth and yield of citronella grass (<em>Cymbopogon nardus</em> L.) in former mining area land in Sawahlunto, West Sumatera, Indonesia.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; Factorial completely randomized design.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>The research was conducted in shade net house of Faculty of Agriculture, Andalas University, Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia from September 2021-January 2022.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Two factors were used in the study. First factor was types of&nbsp; Arbuscular mychorrhizal fungi (AMF), <em>Glomus</em> sp., <em>Gigapora</em> sp. dan multispores (<em>Glomus</em> sp. + <em>Gigaspora</em> sp.) and the second factor was AMF doses that consisted of&nbsp; four degrees, 5 g, 10 g, 15 g and 20 g/plant. The experiment result was analyzed by using Analysis of variance (ANOVA) in 5% and continued&nbsp; by using Duncan’s New Multople Range Test (DNMRT) in 5%.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Type of AMF multispores in 20 g/ plant could number of tiller. Dose 20 g/plant could plant height and number of leaves. AMF multispores only increased number of tiller and net assimilation rate.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Type and dose of AMF affected the agronomy parameter of citronella grass in former mining area land.</p> Agung Ramadhano Indra Dwipa Etti Swasti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-21 2022-07-21 69 76 10.9734/arja/2022/v15i430168 Combined Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization and Seeding Rate on Regional Wheat Yield and Yield Components in Bangladesh <p>Seed rate and nitrogen fertilization are two main critical factors that affect wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum</em> L.) growth and yield. But a little knowledge on the interaction effects of these two factors in wheat cultivation under course, strong acidic nutrient deficit soil condition aimed us to conduct this research. We grew wheat at the field laboratory of the department of Agronomy and Haor Agriculture, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet-3100, Bangladesh, during crop growing period (November-March) of wheat 2021-2022 with split plot design assigning seed rate (100, 120, 140 &amp; 160 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) in main plot and nitrogen fertilizer (0, 120, 140, 160 &amp; 180 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) in sub plot. The maximum grain yield (3.0 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) was obtained at 140 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and 160 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> seeding rate and nitrogen fertilization respectively. Whereas, the minimum grain yield (1.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) was recorded in control treatment (100 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> seed with zero nitrogen). The highest value of the entire yield contributing parameters i.e. effective tillers plant<sup>-1</sup> (2.9), spike length (14.7 cm), spikelet spike<sup>-1</sup> (17.0), florets spike<sup>-1</sup> (52.3), grain spike<sup>-1</sup> (51.0) and 1000 seed weight (42.6 g) were recorded at 140 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and 160 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> seeding rate and nitrogen fertilization respectively and the values were increased with the increase of seeding rate and nitrogen fertilization rate upto 140 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and 160 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> respectively then declined. The growth parameter i.e. plant height (114.1 cm) increased with the increase of seeding rate 160 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and nitrogen fertilization upto 160 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and the minimum value (54.1 cm) was recorded at control treatment.</p> Kishore Kumar Sarker Mozammel Hoque Akhi Paul Chowdhury ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-28 2022-07-28 77 85 10.9734/arja/2022/v15i430169