Assessment of Genetic Variability for Physiological Traits and Yield in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.)

Santosh *

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Dr. K. S. Gill Akal College of Agriculture Eternal University-Baru Sahib, Himachal Pradesh-173101, India.

Jai Prakash Jaiswal

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology Pantnagar, Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The present investigation was carried out with 32 diverse genotypes of bread wheat in completely randomized block design with 3 replications at Norman E. Borlaug Crop Research Centre, G.B. Pant University of agriculture & Technology Pantnagar for the screening of genetic variability under three environments viz., timely sown (E1), late sown (E2) and very late sown (E3) seasons. The observations were recorded on 16 agronomic traits and 3 physiological traits. The statistical analysis for genetic variability was done using ANOVA, h2, GCV, PCV, GA and genotypic correlation. The analysis of variance was carried out for all the characters in randomized block design indicated highly significant differences among treatments for all the characters under study. High heritability values were observed in all the characters studied except grain filling duration in which heritability was moderate. High ECV was observed for characters such as canopy temperature depression-I, canopy temperature depression-II, canopy temperature-III, and canopy temperature depression-IV. Characters plot yield, canopy temperature depression-I, and canopy temperature depression-IV were marked with high GCV. Characters days to 75% heading, days to 75% anthesis, days to 75% maturity, grain yield per plant, plot yield, canopy temperature depression-I, canopy temperature depression-II, canopy temperature depression-III, and canopy temperature depression-IV exhibited high PCV values. The genetic advance was observed high for plot yield. There were highly significant positive as well as highly significant negative correlations were observed among physiological and yield related traits. The CTD-I, III, IV, and relative water content had shown highly significant positive correlation with days to 75 % heading and days to 75 % anthesis. CTD-III, IV, SPAD and relative water content were also marked with highly significant positive correlations with different yield attributes. The genotypes bearing the desired values for different genetic variability parameters can be exploited in future breeding programme for the improving wheat genotypes. These genotypes can be used as donor parents in crop improvement programme.

Keywords: Bread wheat, ANOVA, heritability, GCV, PCV, genetic advance

How to Cite

Santosh, and Jai Prakash Jaiswal. 2024. “Assessment of Genetic Variability for Physiological Traits and Yield in Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. Em. Thell.)”. Asian Research Journal of Agriculture 17 (3):28-42.


Download data is not yet available.


Anonymous, World agriculture production. United state department of agriculture, WAP. 2024;1-24.

Tewari R, Jaiswal JP, Gangwar RP and Singh PK. Genetic diversity analysis in Exotic germplasm accessions of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by cluster analysis. Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding. 2015;6(4):1111-1117.

Tabasum, Saima, Gazala Nazir, Khursheed Hussain, Gowhar Ali, Nageena Nazir, Faheema Mushtaq Z. Hussain, Arizoo. Analysis of genetic variability and heritability in Brinjal (Solanum Melongena L.) genotypes. Journal of Advances in Biology and Biotechnology. 2024;27(4):198-205. Available:

Fazil S, Asif M, Iqbal M. Sofi D, Mahdi SS, Jeelani F, Khan MH, Dar NA, Mir GH, Asif B, Shikari S, Bangroo, Soliha M, Tanveer A, Ahngar. Estimation of genetic variability in saffron (Crocus sativus L.) germplasm for morphological and quality traits. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports. 2024;30(6):745-63. Available:

John K, Reddy PR, Reddy PH. Genetic variability for morphological, physiological, yield and yield traits in F2 populations of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L). International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology. 2012;2(4):463-9.

Tshikunde NM, Mashilo J, Shimelis H, Odindo A. Agronomic and physiological traits, and associated quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting yield response in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): A review. Frontiers in plant science. 2019;10:1428.

Shekhawat US, Vijay P, Singhania DL. Genetic divergence in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Indian J. Agric. Res. 2001;35(2):121-123.

Arunachalam VA. Genetic distances in plant breeding. Indian J. Genet. 1981;4:226-236.

Joshi AB and Dhawan NL. Genetic improvement of yield with special reference to self fertilizing crops. IndJ. Genet. and Plant Breed. 1966;26:101-113.

Joshi BK, Mudwari A, Bhatta MR, Ferrara GO. Genetic diversity in Nepalese wheat cultivars based on agro morphological traits and coefficients of parentage. Nep Agric Res J. 2004;5:7-17.

Rahman MS, Hossain MS, Akbar MK, Islam MS, Ali L. Genetic divergence in spring wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.). Eco- friendly Agricultural Journal. 2015;8(1):01-03.

Singh D, Singh SK, Singh KN. Diversity of salt resistance in a large germplasm collection of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Crop Improvement. 2009;36(1):9-12.

Arya VK, Singh J, Kumar L, Kumar R, Kumar P, Chand P. Genetic variability and diversity analysis for yield and its components in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Indian J. Agric. Res. 2017;51(2):128-134.

Bhatt GM. Multivariate analysis approach to selection of parents for hybridization aiming at yield component in self-pollinated crops. Aus J. Agric. Res. 1970;21:1-7.

Dawari NH, Luthra OP. Character association studies under high and low environments in wheat. Indian J. African Res. 1991;25(2):68-72.

Kumar B, Lal GM, Ruchi, Upadhyay A. Genetic variability, Diversity and association of quantitative traits with grain yield in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2009;(1):4-6.

Zodoks JC, Chang TT, Konzak CF. A decimal code for the growth stages of cereals. Weed Research. 1974;14:415-421.

Panse VG, Sukhatme PV. Statistical methods for Agricultural workers, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi. 1969;252-254.

Burton GW. Quantitative inheritance in grasses. Proceeding of 6th international Grassland Congress. 1952;1:227-283.

Johnson HW, Robinson JF, Comstock RE. Estimate of genetic and environmental variability in soybean. Agronomy Journal. 1955;314-318.

Allard RW. Principles of plant breeding. New York, John Willey and Sons. 1960;138-142.

Searle SR. Phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations. Biometrics. 1961;17:474-480.

Singh ID and Storkoff NC. Harvest index in cereals. Agron. J. 1971;63:224-226.

Hirachand PK, Srivastava LS, Mehata SK. Genetic variability, correlations and path coefficients analysis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Madras Agric. J. 1978;65(1):12-17.

Balyaeva EG. Variability and heritability of quantitative characters in hybrid population of winter wheat. Referativnyi Z. 1981;18:65-138.

Ibrahim AMH, Quick JS. Heritability of Heat tolerance in winter and spring wheat. Crop Sci. 2001;41:1405-1407.

Salem KFM, El-Zanaty AM, Esmail RM. Assessing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genetic diversity using morphological characters and microsatallite Markers. World J Agri. Sci. 2008;4(5):538-544.

Ali Y, Atta BM, Akhter J, Monneveux P, Lateef Z. Genetic variability, association and diversity studies in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm. Pak J Bot. 2008;40:2087-2097.

Khan AA, Iqbal A, Awan FS, Khan IA. Genetic diversity in wheat germplasm collections from Balochistan province of Pakistan. Pakistan J Bot. 2010;42(1):89-96.

Teerbatar KH. Modificatory variation for some quantitative characters in varieties of spring bread wheat at different sowing date. Referativnyi Z. 1988;8:165-167.

Wrigley CW, Blumenthal C, Grass PW, Barlow FWR. Temperature variation during grain filling and changes in wheat grain quality. Aust J. Plant Physiol. 1994;21:875-885.

Sharma RK, Tandon JP. Investigations on heat tolerance during vegetative and grain filling phases in wheat. Crop Res. 1997;14:269-274.

Deshmukh SN, Basu MS, Reddy PS. Genetic variability, character association and path coefficients and quantitative traits in Virginia bunch varieties of groundnut. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1986;56:816-821.

Zecevic V, Boskovic J, Wani M, Ram BAM, Yasin A, Singh E. Physiological traits in integration with yield and yield components in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) study of their genetic variability and correlation. Asian J. Agric. Res. 2011;5:194-200.

Monpara BA. Grain filling period as a measure of yield improvement in bread wheat, Crop Improv. 2011;38(1): 1-5.

Falconer DS, Trudy FC, Mackay. Introduction to Quantitative Genetics 4th ed; 1996.

Jaiswal JP. Assessment of genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for yield and physiological traits under late sown condition in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2019;8(2):347-53.

Singh P, Narayanan SS. Biometrical Techniques in Plant Breeding. New Delhi, India: Kalyani Publishers; 1999.

Singh P, Dwivedi P. Morpho-physiological responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes under late sown conditions. Vegetos. 2015;28(1):16-25.

Singh RP, Huerta-Espino J, Sharma RC, Joshi AK, Trethowan R. High yielding spring wheat germplasm for global irrigated and rainfed production systems. Euphytica. 2007;157:351-363.

Wahid A, Gelani S, Ashraf M, Foolad MR. Heat tolerance in plants: An overview. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 2007;61:199–223.

Wardlaw IF, Dawson IA, Munibi P, Fewster R. The tolerance of wheat to high temperatures during reproductive growth. I. Survey procedures and general response patterns. Aus. J. Agric. Res. 1989;40:965-980.

Degewione A, Alamerew S. Genetic diversity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2013;16:1330-1335.

Munir MMA, Chaudhary, Malik TA. Correlation studies among yield and its components in bread wheat under drought conditions. Intl J. Agri. and Bio. 2007;15(2):287–290.

Warrington IF, Dunston RL, Green CW. Heat tolerance in temperature cereals: An overview. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 1994;28:11-27.

Blum A. Variation among wheat cultivars in response of leaf gas exchange to light. J. Agric. Sci. 1990;115:305-311.

Cupina T, Borojevic S, Janjatoivc V. Chlorophyll content and mesophyll thickness in the green parts of different cultivars of wheat (c.f. Field Crops Abstracts.1979;34:3050.

Reynolds MP, Singh RP, Ibrahim A, Ageeb OAA, Larqué-Saavedra A, Quick JS. Evaluating physiological traits to complement empirical selection for wheat in warm environments. Euphytica. 1998;100: 84-95.

Fisher RA, Byerlee DB. Trends of wheat production in warmer areas: Major issues and economic considerations. In: Saunders, D.A. (Eds.) Wheat for Nontraditional, Warm Areas. Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT. 1991;3-27.

Rane J, Nagarajan S, Jagshoran. Phenological and physiological responses of advanced wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions to higher temperatures. Wheat: Technologies for Warmer Areas. Anamaya Publishers, New Delhi. 2002;194.

Fellahi Z, Hannachi A, Bouzerzour H, Boutekrabt A. Correlation between traits and path analysis coefficient for grain yield and other quantitative traits in bread wheat under semi arid conditions. Journal of Agriculture and Sustainability. 2013;3(1):16-26.

Khan AA, Barma NCD, Hasan MM, Alam MA, Alam MK. Correlation study on some heat tolerant traitsof spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)Under late Sowing conditions. J. Agric. Res. 2014;52(1):11-23.