Scale Construction to Measure the Attitude of Farmers towards Agricultural Diversification

Surendra Kumar Rai *

College of Agriculture, Balaghat, JNKVV, Jabalpur, India.

Shailendra Bhalawe

College of Agriculture, Balaghat, JNKVV, Jabalpur, India.

G. R. Patel

Department ofExtension Education, Navsari Agriculture University, Navsari (Guj), India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Attitude plays an important role in persuasion of one’s behaviour in respect to a particular psychological object. The attitude of farmers’ may influence their decision to adopt different practices to diversify their farms. Therefore, the investigation was carried out to expand a reliable and suitable mechanism to measure the farmers’ attitude towards Agricultural Diversification in their areas. The “Likert’s summated rating approach” was followed for a step by step procedure of developing uniform attitude degree. A total 67 statements reflecting belief of the farmers towards agricultural diversification were collected and out of which, 50 statements were retained after editing. The statements were sent to eighty Judges to judge its proper relevancy.  Based on the relevancy test of 50 statements, only 35 statements were selected. The 18 statements were retained after the‘t’ test where 11 were positive and 7 were negative statements. The reliability of the scale was confirmed by the use of split half method while validity was studied by content validity. The reliability coefficient was found to be 0.82 which showed the reliability of the scale. Therefore other academicians and researchers can be using this identical magnitude with or without modifications to measure attitude of farmers headed for Agricultural Diversification.

Keywords: Attitude, agricultural diversification, item analysis, reliability, validity

How to Cite

Rai, S. K., Bhalawe, S., & Patel , G. R. (2024). Scale Construction to Measure the Attitude of Farmers towards Agricultural Diversification. Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, 17(2), 54–59.


Download data is not yet available.


Sisay WA. Participation into off-farm activities in rural Ethiopia: Who earns more? A Research Paper presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the attainment of the degree of Masters of Arts in Development Studies; International Institute of Social Studies; 2010.

Ligon E,Sadoulet E. Estimating the effects of aggregate agricultural growth on the distribution of expenditures. Background paper for the WDR; 2008.

Rai SK, Patel GR, Pandya RD, Salunkhe SR. Constraints and suggestions perceived by respondents in agricultural diversification. Trends in biosciences. 2015;8(16):4099-4102.

FAO. Coping with Climate Change – The Roles of Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture; 2015.

Khoury CK, Bjorkman AD, Dempewolf H, Villegas JR, Guarino L, Jarvis A, Rieseberg LH, Struik PC. Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2014;4001-4006.

Culas RJ. Causes of farm diversification over time: An Australian perspective on an Eastern Norway model. AFBM Journal. 2012;3(1):1-9.

FAO. 6 Ways Indigenous Peoples Are Helping the World Achieve #ZeroHunger. 2017.

Garnett ST, Burgess ND, Fa JE, Fernandez LA, MolnarZ, Robinson CJ, Watson JEM, ZanderKK, Austin B, BrondizioES, Collier NF, DuncanT, Ellis E, Geyle H, Jackson MV, Jonas H, Malmer P, McGowanB, Sivongxay A, Leiper, I. A spatial overview of the global importance of indigenous lands for conservation. Nat. Sustain. 2018;1:369–374. DOI: org/ 10.1038/s41893-018-0100-6

Guilford JP. Psychometric Methods. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Prentice Hall, New York; 1954.

Thurstone LL. The Measurement of attitude. American Journal of Sociology. Chicago University, Chicago Press. 1946;39-40.

Likert RA. A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Archives of Psychology. 1932;140.

Edward AL, Kilpatrick FP. A technique for construction of attitude scales. Journal App. Psycho. 1948;32:374- 384.

Rai SK, Uttam Bisen, Gaur VS, SarvadeS, Solanki RS, Shrivastava AK, Thakur RK, Mohmmad Imran Khan, Bisen NK. A study on growers of underutilized pulse crop Chani (Cicer arietinum L.) of Balaghat district, MP, India. Ecology Environment and Conservation. 2022;28(4):1851-1856.

Sharma YM, Jatav RC, Sharma GD, Thakur Risikesh. Status of micronutrients in mixed red and black soils of rewa district of Madhya Pradesh, India. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 2013; 25(6):3109-3112.

Thakur Risikesh, S Sarvade, BS Dwivedi. Heavy metals: Soil contamination and its remediation. AATCC Review. 2022; 10(02):59-76.

Kushwaha S, Sawarkar SD, Thakur R, Khamparia NK, Singh M. Impact of long term nutrient management on soil n dynamics under soybean – Wheat cropping sequence on a vertisol. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science. 2017;65:274-282.

Thakur Risikesh, Sawarkar SD, Kauraw DL. and Singh Muneshwar. Effect of Inorganic and Organic Sources on Nutrients Availability in aVertisol. Agropedology.2010;20(1):53-59.

Tiwari R, Dwivedi BS, Sharma YM, Thakur R, Sharma A,Nagwanshi A. Soil properties and soybean yield as influenced by long term fertilizer and organic manure application in a vertisol under soybean-wheat cropping sequence. Legume Research; 2023 DOI: 10.18805/LR-5111

Sawarkar SD, Thakur Risikesh, Khamparia RS. Impact of long term continuous use of inorganic and organic nutrients on micronutrients uptake by soybean in vertisol. Journal of Soils and Crops. 2010;20(2):207 – 210.