Clinical, Pathological and Epidemiological Aspects of Cephalopina titillator Larval, Exciter in Camelus dromedaris from the Rafsanjan Region, Iran

Hamidreza Azizi

Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.

Gholamali Kojouri *

Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Central Laboratory, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.

Yaser Pirali

Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.

Mahmood Maghami

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.

Mohammadreza Bafti Zahirabadi

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The camel nasal bot fly is an obligate parasite which its larvae causes nasopharyngeal myiasis and the 3rd generation of larvae may cause serious nasal mucosal damage. The present study was conducted on Camelus dromedaris to determine the clinical assessment, seasonal prevalence and also pathological adverse effect of Cephalopina titillator in Rafsanjan region (South east of Iran). Due to history and dental formula, camels were divided into four age groups: less than two years (62 cases), two to five years (86 cases), five to nine (42 cases) and more than nine  years (10 cases), which positive cases confirmed in 12 (19.4%%), 31 (36%), 40 (95.2%) and 10 (100%) cases, respectively. The major clinical signs of naturally infected camel was categorized in three main parts; Respiratory signs, nervous behavior and general symptoms which the main ones were related to stridor and nasal discharge. Suspected larvae with average 14.83±4.35 was recovered from 93 infested camels and evaluated microscopically for determining the larval stage. Furthermore, the gross and histopathological findings were recorded by using tissue  samples. These non sex related findings showed that with increasing the age, susceptibility to this specific parasite infestation increased as well (p<0.001). No significant seasonal changes were recorded, but the incidence rate was higher in March, April and September. Different larval stage were mostly found in nasal cavity, nasopharyngeal and laryngeal areas which was accompanied by local inflammation, regional edema and serosanguinous exudate. Microscopical findings were showed the epithelial damage along with lymphoid hyperplasia, accumulation of inflammatory cells and remnants of necrotic tissue. However, fibroblasts proliferation, connective tissue formation along with some degrees of atrophy and focal calcification were the significant findings of  chronic infestation.

These findings indicate the presence of heavy larval infestation in camel of Rafsanjan region  which imposes severe economic losses and affect their health, growth and related productions. Therefore, it is recommended to carry out the necessary measures for the biological control  of the camel nasal bot fly.

Keywords: Iran, Camel, Rafsanjan, fly, Cephalopina titillator larva, epidemiological aspects, chronic infestation

How to Cite

Azizi, Hamidreza, Gholamali Kojouri, Yaser Pirali, Mahmood Maghami, and Mohammadreza Bafti Zahirabadi. 2024. “Clinical, Pathological and Epidemiological Aspects of Cephalopina Titillator Larval, Exciter in Camelus Dromedaris from the Rafsanjan Region, Iran”. Asian Research Journal of Agriculture 17 (2):28-35.


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