Biochemical Characterization and Responses of Two Contrasting Genotypes of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. to Salinity in a Hydroponic System

Sirpaul Jaikishun *

College of Life Sciences and Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Haixia Applied Plant Systems Biology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China and FAFU-UCR Joint Center for Horticultural Biology and Metabolomics, Haixia Institute of Science and Technology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China and Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Guyana, Guyana.

Shikui Song

College of Life Sciences and Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Haixia Applied Plant Systems Biology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China and FAFU-UCR Joint Center for Horticultural Biology and Metabolomics, Haixia Institute of Science and Technology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

Zhenbiao Yang

College of Life Sciences and Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Haixia Applied Plant Systems Biology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China and FAFU-UCR Joint Center for Horticultural Biology and Metabolomics, Haixia Institute of Science and Technology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China and Institute of Integrative Genome Biology and Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Chenopodium quinoa is a promising species for future food security and combating climate change due to its nutritional content and halophytic nature. This study focuses on the temporal differential responses of the salt-tolerant (Chadmo) and the salt-sensitive (Kankolla) under control (CK) and 400 mM NaCl arranged under the randomised block designed (RBD). Biochemical features assessed and results indicate a significant difference (p<0.05) being identified by ANOVA and Tukey analyses in total chlorophyll (CHL), carotenoids (CAR), proline, glycine betaine (GB),  soluble sugars,  K+, Na+, K+/Na+ ratio, Mg2+ and Ca2+ in both genotypes between the CK and 400 mM NaCl. Na+ increased while K+ and the bivalent ions Mg2+ and Ca2+ decreased progressively with time points (CK and 24 h) in both genotypes but more pronounced in Kankolla. Proline increased by 24.45 and 18.63% between the CK and 24 h after exposure to 400 mM NaCl in Chadmo and Kankolla, respectively. Similarly, significant increases were observed in ABA, glycine betaine and soluble sugars from the CK to 24 h after exposure to 400 mM NaCl in both genotypes. Using these biochemical responses to salinity, Chadmo proved to be the better-performing genotype when exposed to 400 mM NaCl and hence identified as the salt-tolerant genotype.

Keywords: Climate change, biochemical, halophytes, nutrients, proline, quinoa, salinity, salt-tolerant

How to Cite

Jaikishun , S., Song , S., & Yang , Z. (2023). Biochemical Characterization and Responses of Two Contrasting Genotypes of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. to Salinity in a Hydroponic System. Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, 16(1), 41–54.


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