Production and Adoption of Transgenic Crops in Sub-Saharan Africa
Asian Research Journal of Agriculture,
Food insecurity is high in sub-Saharan Africa. It has been estimated that 29 out of the 40 low income countries and countries with the highest rates of malnutrition are found in this region. Therefore, increasing agriculture productivity in sub-Saharan Africa is a priority and utilization of scientific and technological advances could enhance agricultural productivity. While the use of transgenic crops has been floated as one of the key solutions, to this effect, the region has continuously experience low levels of adoption compared to other regions. This paper reviews the state of production and adoption in sub-Saharan Africa, with an in-depth explanation of factors that may have led to low adoption levels. Furthermore, biosafety measures meant to regulate production and utilization of transgenic crops have also be discussed.
- Food insecurity
- transgenic crops
- cereal yield
How to Cite
Ochieng JW, Ananga A. Biotechnology in Agricultural Policies of Sub-Saharan Africa. 2019;1-16. Available:https://www.intechopen.com/books/elements-of-bioeconomy/biotechnology-in-agricultural-policies-of-sub-saharan-africa.
Food Agriculture Organization, International Fund for Agricultural Development, United Nations Children’s Fund, World Food Program, World Health Organization. The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2019. Safeguarding against economic slowdowns and downturns. Rome, FAO; 2019.
Food Agriculture Organization, International Fund for Agricultural Development, United Nations Children’s Fund, World Food Program, World Health Organization. The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2020. Safeguarding against economic slowdowns and downturns. Rome, FAO; 2020
Yu, Pratt N. Agricultural productivity and policies in Sub-Saharan Africa. Selected paper prepared for presentation at the Agricultural and Applied Economics Association (AAEA) and Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association (NAREA) Joint Annual Meeting, Pittsburgh, Washington, USA; 2011.
Muzhinji N, Ntuli V. 2020. Genetically modified organisms and food security in Southern Africa: Conundrum and Discourse. 2020; 12:25-35
Bjorn Lund V, Bjornlund H, Van Rooyen AF. Why agricultural production in sub-Saharan Africa remains low compared to the rest of the world – a historical perspective, International Journal of Water Resources Development. 2020; 36:20-53.
van Ittersum MK, van Bussel LGJ, Wolf J, Grassini P, van Wart J, Guilpart N, Claessens L, de Groot H, Wiebe K, Mason-D’Croz D, Yang H, Boogaard H, Pepijn AJ, van Oort P, Loon MP, Saito K, Adimo O, Adjei-Nsiah S, Agali A, Bala A, Chikowo R, Kaizzi K, Kouressy M, Makoi R, Ouattara K, Tesfaye K, Cassman KG. Can sub-Saharan Africa feed itself? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2016;113:14964- 14969.
GAP Report. Technology Adoption for Improving Agricultural Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa. Virginia Tech; 2020. Available:https://globalagriculturalproductivity.org/technology-adoption-for-improving-agricultural-productivity-in-sub-saharan-africa/. Accessed on 7th July 2021 Alliance for Science. The GMO Debate. Available:https://allianceforscience.cornell.edu/blog/2018/08/the-gmo-debate. 2018.
Jacobsen SE, Sorensen M, Pedersen SM, Weiner J. Feeding the world: genetically modified crops versus agricultural biodiversity. Agronomy sustainable Development. 2013;33:651-662.
Hazell P, Wood S. Drivers of change in global agriculture. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 2008; 363:495–515.
Eriksson D, Akoroda M, Azmach G, Labuschagne M, Mahungu N, Ortiz R. Measuring the impact of plant breeding on sub-Saharan African staple crops. Outlook on Agriculture. 2018;47:163-180.
Tembo L, Asea G, Gibson PT, Okori P. Assessment of Uganda’s farmers’ perception and knowledge on maize cob rots towards breeding for resistance. Journal of Agriculture and Crops. 2016; 2:1-8.
Kuyek D. Genetically Modified Crops in Africa: Implications for Small Farmers. Genetic Resources Action International. Barcelona, Spain; 2002.
Francis L. Developing resistance to Bt genes in cotton bollworm. Texas Row Crops Newsletter, Texas, USA; 2019.
ISAAA. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2019. ISAAA Brief No. 55. ISAAA: Ithaca, New York; 2019
Luna J. How power shaped the ‘success story’ of genetically modified cotton in Burkina Faso. CSU Magazines. Colorado State University, USA. 2020
Alliance of Africa. Nigeria approves its first GMO food crop. Available:https://allianceforscience.cornell.edu. Accessed 18th June 2021
Cornish L. What are the political drivers for GMOs in developing countries? DEVEX; 2018.
Robinson, J. Ethics and transgenic crops: a review. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, 1999;2:71- 81.
Kotze M. The theological ethics of human enhancement: Genetic engineering, robotics and nanotechnology. In die Skriflig, 2018;52: 1-8.
Suuk M. Resistance to Genetically Modified Seeds in Africa. Mail and Guardian, South Africa; 2018.
Zhou W. The Patent Landscape of Genetically Modified Organisms. Special edition of GM Harvard University, USA; 2015.
Alliance for Africa. Royalty-free genes reduce GMO seed costs in Africa. 2019. Available:https://allianceforscience.cornell.edu.
Nemana V. In India, Genetically Modified Crops Come at a High Price. The New York Times, India; 2012
Racovita M, Obonyo DN, Abdallah R, Anguzu R, Bamwenda G, Kiggundu A, Maganga H, Muchiri N, Nzeduru C, Otadoh J, Rumjaun A, Suleiman I, Sunsil M, Tepfer M, Timpo S, Van der Walt, Kabore-Zoungrana C, Nfor L, Craig W. Experiences in sub Saharan Africa with GM crop risk communication: outcome of a workshop. Transgenic crops food. 2013; 4:19-27.
Mabaya E, Fulton J, Wafukho SS, Nang'ayo F. Factors influencing adoption of genetically modified crops in Africa. Development Southern Africa. 2015; 32: 1-15.
Paarlberg RL. Governing the GM crop revolution: Policy choices for developing countries. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DC, USA; 2001.
Adenle, AA. Response to issues on GM agriculture in Africa: Are transgenic crops safe?. BMC Res Notes 2011;4:388. Available:https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-4-388
Eicher CK, Maredia K, Sithole-Niang I. Crop biotechnology and the African farmer. Food Policy. 2006; 31:504–27.
Keetch DP, Makinde D, Weebadde CK, Maredia KM. Biosafety in Africa: Experiences and best practices. Michigan State University, USA; 2014.
Nordgård L, Brusetti L, Raddadi N, Traavik T, Averhoff B, Nielsen KM. An investigation of horizontal transfer of feed introduced DNA to the aerobic microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of rats. Bio Med Central Research Notes. 2012;5:1-11.
Nielsen KM, Bøhn T, Townsend JP. Detecting rare gene transfer events in bacterial populations. Front Microbiology. 2014; 4:415. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2013.00415
Malarkey, T. Human health concerns with GM crops, Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research. 2003;544:2–3.
FAO. Agriculture and Food Insecurity Risk Management in Africa. Concepts, Lessons Learned and Review Guidelines. Food and Agriculture Organisation. Rome, Italy; 2016.
Tushaar S, Namara R, Rajan A. Accelerating irrigation expansion in sub-Saharan Africa: Policy lessons from the global revolution in farmer-led smallholder irrigation. World Bank, Washington, DC; 2020.
You LZ. Africa: Irrigation investment needs in Sub-Saharan Africa. Africa infrastructure country diagnostic background paper;no. 9. Washington, DC, World Bank; 2008.
Shaner DA. Field kit to detect glyphosate resistance in the field is being evaluated by Monsanto. USDA-ARS, USA; 2013.
Howe AR, Gasser CS, Brown SM, Padgette SR, Hart J, Parker GB, Fromm ME, Armstrong CL. Glyphosate as a selective agent for the production of fertile transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) plants. Molecular Breeding 2002;10:153–164.
Midling MB. Biotechnology adoption in Sub-Saharan Africa. Berkeley Undergraduate Journal. 2011;24:1-20.
Heap I. Global perspective of herbicide-resistant weeds. Pest Management Science. 2014; 70:1306-15.
Lombardo L. Genetic use restriction technologies: a review. Plant Biotechnology Journal 2014; 12: 995–1005
Bilal F, Farrukh M, Saleem M, Wahid A, Muhammad SA, Mudassar M. Adoption of Bt Cotton: Threats and Challenges. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research. 2012; 72:419-428.
Manickam S, Gururajan KN, Gopalakrishnan N. GM. Crops: BT cotton. 2019. Available:https://agritech.tnau.ac.in/bio-tech/biotech_btcotton_env.html. Accessed on 1st May 2021
Woodfolk JA, Commins SP, Schuyler AJ, Erwin EA, Platts-Mills TA. Allergens, sources, particles, and molecules: Why do we make IgE responses? Allergology international: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology. 2015; 64: 295–303.
Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity: text and annexes. Montreal: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity; 2000.
AUDA-NEPAD. The Legal Issues. The Background of Cartegana Protocol on Biosafety. Midrand, South Africa; 2019.
McLean MA, Frederick RJ, Traynor PL, Cohen JI, Komen J. A Conceptual Framework for Implementing Biosafety: Linking Policy, Capacity, and Regulation. CGIAR > International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR). 2002; 47:1-12.
Pertry I, Sabbadini S, Goormachtig S, Lokko Y, Gheysen G, Burssens SS, Mezzetti B. Biosafety capacity building: experiences and challenges from a distance learning approach. New Biotechnology 2014; 31:64-68
Abstract View: 182 times
PDF Download: 38 times