Participation of Rural Women in Rice Farming Activities: Case of a Village in Bangladesh
Asian Research Journal of Agriculture,
The objectives of this research were to evaluate the socio-economic features of rural women, determine their participation extent in rice farming activities, and find out relationship between socio-economic features and extent of participation. This survey-based research was conducted in a village called Jahidpur in the Sunamganj district. 80 farm families involved in rice farming were selected by using simple random sampling method. Data were collected from women respondents through direct interviews using questionnaires. To determine participation extent, a rating scale of 5 points was used. Around 22 tasks were categorized into 5 aspects namely pre-planting, planting, intercultural operation, harvesting, and post-harvesting. The report revealed that rural women's participation was maximum in post-harvesting activities. However, no participation was found in some field-level tasks such as seedbed preparation, transplanting, nutrient management, plant protection management, irrigation, and harvesting. A major part of the rural women had medium level participation in rice farming activities 61.25% compared to a low participation rate of 38.75% but nobody had high level participation. Some socio-economic characteristics such as age, farming experience, agricultural knowledge had a significant positive relationship whereas education had a significant negative relationship with rural women's participation in rice farming activities. Tradition (100%), food security (95%), and poverty reduction (92.5%) were the main three reasons for women’s participation while male-dominated society (100%), restricted social interaction (95%), and limited access to resources (86.5%) acted as top three barriers. Rural women's involvement in rice farming was not at a satisfactory level and proper strategy implementation is required for further increasing the participation extent in rice farming activities.
- Rural women
- women participation
- rice farming
How to Cite
Bangladesh Continues to Reduce Poverty But at Slower Pace, World Bank; 2017. Accessed 11 February 2021. Available:https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2017/10/24/bangladesh-conti nues-to-reduce-poverty-but-at-slower-pace
BBS. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. 45 years Agriculture Statistics of Major Crops, Statistics and Informatics Division (SID), Ministry of Planning, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh; 2018.
Labor force participation rate, female (% of female population ages 15+) (modeled ILO estimate)-Bangladesh | Data, World Bank; 2020. Accessed 11 February 2021. Available:https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.CACT.FE.ZS?locations=BD
Gurung JD. Searching for Women’s voices in the Hindu-Kush Himalayas, International center for integrated mountain development, Kathmandu. 1999;1–36,
Anam S. Women’s work: Unrecognised and undervalued | The Daily Star, The Daily Star; 2016. Accessed 11 February 2021. Available:https://www.thedailystar.net/supplements/25th-anniversary-special-part-4/w omens-work-unrecognised-and-undervalu ed-212014
Women’s unpaid work equivalent to 40pc of GDP: Sanem. The Daily Star; 2019. Accessed 11 February 2021. Available:https://www.thedailystar.net/business/news/womens-unpaid-work-equivale nt-40pc-gdp-sanem-1823374
Fletschner D, Kenney L. Rural women’s access to financial services: credit, savings, and insurance, Gender in agriculture. 2014;187–208. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-8616-4_8
Shirin M, Ahmed U, Miah MAH. Achievements of women in mixed farming, Success stories of women in agriculture: proceeding of a national workshop on case studies, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC), Dhaka; 1995.
Rasheed A, Mwalupaso GE, Abbas Q, Tian X, Waseem R. Women Participation: A Productivity Strategy in Rice Production, Sustainability. 2020;12;7:2870. Available:https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072870
Sachs CE. Gendered fields: Rural women, agriculture, and environment. Routledge; 2018. Available:https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429493805
Begum S. 13 Women and technology: rice processing in Bangladesh, in Women in Rice Farming: Proceedings of a Conference on Women in Rice Farming Systems, the International Rice Research Institute, PO Box 933, Manila, Philippines, 26-30 September. 1983;221. Available:http://books.irri.org/0566051052_content.pdf
Jahan M, Sarker JR. Gender participation on rice post-harvest activities in Bangladesh, Journal of Environmental Science and Natural Resources. 2015;8;1: 45–50. Available:https://doi.org/10.3329/jesnr.v8i1.24670
Rahman F, Shammi SA, Parvin MT, Akter N, Khan MS, Haque S. Contribution of rural women to rice production activities in two different areas of Bangladesh,” Progressive Agriculture. 2016;27;2:180–188,. Available:https://doi.org/10.3329/pa.v27i2.29329
Rahman S, Routray JK. Technological change and women’s participation in crop production in Bangladesh, Gender, Technology and Development. 1998;2;2: 243–267. Available:https://doi.org/10.1177/097185249800200204
Begum SA. Influence of BRAC credit program of socioeconomic development of rural women. A study of five villages of Jamalpur district, Unnayaon Bitarka. 1995;14;3:29–47,
Amin H, Ali T, Ahmad M, Zafar MI. Participation level of rural women in agricultural activities. Pak. J. Agri. Sci. 2009;46;4:294–301. Available:https://www.pakjas.com.pk/papers/83.pdf
Rahman S. Women’s employment in Bangladesh agriculture: Composition, determinants and scope. Journal of Rural Studies. 2000;16;4:497–507. Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0743-01 67(00)00006-1
Akanda W. Participation of rural women in different farm and non-farm activities in two selected villages of Mymensingh district. M S. Thesis, Dept. Agril. Extn. Edu, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh; 1994.
Damisa MA, Yohanna M. Role of rural women in farm management decision making process: Ordered probit analysis, World Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2007;3;4:543–546. DOI: 10.3923/tasr.2007.241.245
Dickerson-Putman J. Age and gender stratification in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea: implications for participation in economic development. Human Organization. 1992;51;2:109–121. Available:https://www.jstor.org/stable/44126717
Zahoor A, Fakher A, Ali S, Sarwar F. Participation of rural women in crop and livestock activities: a case study of tehsil Tounsa Sharif of southern Punjab (Pakistan), Int. J. Adv. Res. Manage. Soc. Sci. 2013;2;12:98–121. Available:https://garph.co.uk/IJARMSS/Dec2013/9.pdf
Ali O. Attitude of Rural Women of Bangladesh Agricultural University Extension Centre (BAUEC) towards Working in Group, MS (Ag. Ext. Ed.) Thesis; 1995.
Farid KS, Mozumdar L, Kabir MS, Goswami UK. Nature and extent of rural women’s participation in agricultural and non-agricultural activities, Agricultural Science Digest. 2009;29;4:254– 259. Available:https://arccjournals.com/journal/agricultural-science-digest/ARCC2188
Saha NK. Participation of Rural Youth in Selected Agricultural Activities in the Villages of Muktagacha Thana Under Mymensingh District, MS (Ag. Ext. Ed.) Thesis, Dept. of Agril Extension Education, Bangladesh Agricultural University; 1997.
Harun ME. Women's workload and their role in agricultural production in Ambo district, Ethiopia, Journal of development and agricultural economics. 2014;6;8:356–362. DOI: 10.5897/JDAE2013.0546
Abstract View: 184 times
PDF Download: 53 times