Reducing Post Harvest Loss of Maize by Manufacturing and Introducing of Air Tight Silos Grain Storage in Selected Areas of Tigray, Ethiopia

Main Article Content

Dawit Hadera

Abstract

The economy of Ethiopians depends chiefly on agriculture. The major staple grains are the most important field crops and the chief element in the diet of most Ethiopians. Maize is the largest and most productive crop in Ethiopia. In 2007/08, maize production was 4.2 million tons, 40 percent higher than teff, 56 percent higher than sorghum, and 75 percent higher than wheat production. Postharvest losses are major problem in enhancement of maize production. The main controlling mechanism to avoid these losses is using appropriate grain storage. As FAO introduced  stated household metal silo is a key post-harvest technology in the fight against hunger and for food security. The house hold air tight metal silos generally hold between 100 and 3 000 kilos. The objective of this activity is to minimize post-harvest losses of maize grains by introducing this airtight silos in selected wordea’s of the region.

Different air tight silos were manufactured according the SDC Manual for Manufacturing Metal Silos for Grain Storage in MAMRERC workshop. Preliminary test was conducted to check air leakage and strength of welding of the silo. Farmers were selected based on the willingness and resource they have. Weight loss, relative humidity, temperature, moisture content, count breakage from 1000kernel and insects occurred and farmer’s perception was collected in compiring with tradition silo and plastic bag.

From these the air tight silo has low weight loss form 125gm initially and after recorded for six months the weight reduces to 122.6, 114.35, and 112.25gms respectivly.  The moisture of maize grain decrease  from 13% have different in the three containers 26.48, 28.72 and 27 and difference of  -0.52, 1.72, and 0 and average Relative humidity's are 7.96, 4.96, and 3.96 for metal silo, traditional Gottera and plastic bag respectively.  The counted and damaged from 1000 kernels are high in plastic bag and traditional silo. the farmers perception in relative advantage and characteristic of the silo are good.

Keywords:
Air tight silo, plastic bag, storage, Gottera, weight loss, relative humidity, moisture content and temperature.

Article Details

How to Cite
Hadera, D. (2019). Reducing Post Harvest Loss of Maize by Manufacturing and Introducing of Air Tight Silos Grain Storage in Selected Areas of Tigray, Ethiopia. Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, 11(4), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.9734/arja/2019/v11i430066
Section
Original Research Article

References

Zachary Gitonga, Hugo De Groote, Tadele Tefera. Metal silo grain storage technology and household food security in Kenya; 2015.

Mulat Demeke, Fantu Guta, Tadele Ferede. Agricultural development in Ethiopia: Are there alternatives to food aid? Department Of Economics, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa Ethiopia; 2004.

Benin S, Smale M, Pender J, Gebremedhin B, Ehui S. The economic determinants of cereal crop diversity on farms in the Ethiopian highlands. Agri-cultural Economics. 2004;31:197–208.

Bezabih. Agro-biodiversity conservation under an imperfect seed system: The role of community seed banking schemes. Agricultural Economis. 2008;38(1):77–87.

Minot Nicholas, Warner James, Lemma Solomon, Kasa Leulsegged, Abate Gashaw, Rashi. The wheat supply chain in Ethiopia: Patterns, trends, and policy options. Technical Report; 2015.

Chigoverah AA, Mvumi BM. Efficacy of metal silos and hermetic bags

against storedemaize insect pests under simulated smallholder farmer conditions. J. Stored Prod. Res. 2016;69:179e189.

Zorya S, Morgan N, Rios LD. Missing food: The case of postharvest grain

losses in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank, Washington DC, USA; 2011.

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Maize value chain potential in Ethiopia constraints and opportunities for enhancing the system; Working Paper; 2010.

FAO. 30th Joint Meeting of the Intergovernmental group on Oil Seeds, Oils and Fats. Statistical Compendium for Cereals and Oilseeds. Santiago, Chile. 2009;97.

Tadele Tefera, Adebayo Abass. Improved postharvest technologies for promoting food storage, processing, and household nutrition in Tanzania; 2012.

Deepak Kumar, Prasanta Kalita. Reducing postharvest losses during storage of grain crops to strengthen food security in developing countries; 2017.

FAO. Household metal silos: Key allies in FAO’s fight against hunger. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy); 2008.

Swiss Agency for Development and Co-operation / SDC, Manual for Manufacturing Metal Silos for Grain Storage. Second Edition; Bern, Switzerland; 2008.

Tubbs T, Baributsa D, Woloshuk C. Impact of opening hermetic storage bags on grain quality, fungal growth and aflatoxin accumulation. J. Stored Prod. Res. 2016; 69:276e281

Murdock LL, Margam V, Baoua I, Balfe S, Shade RE. Death by desiccation: Effects of hermetic storage on cowpea bruchids. J. Stored Prod. Res. 2012;49:166e170.

Chiappini E, Molinari P, Cravedi P. Mortality of Tribolium confusum J. du Val

(Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in controlled atmospheres at different oxygen percentages. J. Stored Prod. Res. 2009; 45:10e13.

Baoua IB, Amadou L, Margam V, Murdock LL. Comparative evaluation of six storage methods for postharvest preservation of cowpea grain. J. Stored Prod. Res. 2012; 49:171e175.

Pantenius C. Storage losses in traditional maize granaries in Togo. Int. J. Trop. Insect Sci. 1988;9:725–735. [CrossRef]

Deepak Kumar, Prasanta Kalita. Reducing postharvest losses during storage of grain crops to strengthen food security in developing countries; 2017.