Funding of Agricultural Public Extension Service in a Deregulated Economy: A Study of Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Main Article Content

K. N. N. Ezike
E. N. Okeowata
V. A. Chukwu
Ogonna O. Osuafor


Funding of Ebonyi State Nigeria Agricultural Public Extension Service in a deregulated economy was studied. The specific objectives were to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents; identify the major recommended packages/technologies and services extended to the farmers and examine the trend in the funding of agricultural extension services from 2001 to 2010. A total of 240 contact farmers were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study found that majority (65.42%) of the respondents were males; had a mean age of 49 years, married; had a relatively large household size of 8 persons; and relatively low educational status. Average farm holding was 0.90 ha and personal savings were the major sources of farm finance. Government funding of the agricultural public extension dwindled throughout the period with budget estimate at the peak of N220.4 m recorded in 2013 and the lowest of about N69.3 m in 2001, whereas the highest actual expenditure was about N99.5 m in 2010 and the lowest amount of about N37.1 m was also recorded in 2009. A big difference between the budget estimate and actual expenditure was observed in 2009 with a budget deficit of about 46.5%. The amount farmers were willing to pay for extension services was not also stable with the highest amount of about N9.2 m in 2005 and least amount of N800,000.00 in 2003. The amount expended by government was higher than the amount farmers are willing to pay with 98.2% difference in 2004. The study indicated that the proportion of farmers willing to pay for extension services is low. This could lead to reduced adoption and utilization of improved technologies and decline in farmers’ and farm productivity in a deregulated economy. Recommendations such as educating farmers on cost of extension services and the need for their contribution, backing up extension services with interest free loans, deregulating extension services in a gradual process and in phases, and improving the country’s educational system were made among others.

Funding, extension services, deregulated economy.

Article Details

How to Cite
N. Ezike, K. N., Okeowata, E. N., A. Chukwu, V., & O. Osuafor, O. (2020). Funding of Agricultural Public Extension Service in a Deregulated Economy: A Study of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, 12(1), 24-35.
Review Article


Bello M, Salau ES. A case of Participatory (Cost Sharing) Approach to agricultural extension delivery in Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Extension. 2009;13(1):84-94.

Chukwuone NA, Agwu AE, Ozor N. Constraints and strategies towards effective cost-sharing of agricultural technology delivery in Nigeria: Perception of Farmers and Agricultural Extension Personnel. Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education. 2006; 13(1):1-13.

Umebali EE. The role of agricultural extension education in poverty alleviation; Lessons from the study of Agric Extension in Ohaji/Egbema Local Government Council of Imo State. The Nigeria Journal of Agricultural and Rural Management. 2003;6(2).

Liot CA. Agricultural credit administration by Commercial Banks: The United bank; for Africa Experience in Okorie, A. and Ijere M.O. Reading in Agricultural Finance. Longman (Nig.) Pic. Lagos; 1998.

Rivera WM, Cary JW. Improving agricultural extension - A Reference Manual, Rome, Privatizing Agricultural Extension. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2007;3(5):653-658.

EBADEP. The 2003-2005 National Rolling Plan and the Budget; 2003.

Hansra BS, Adhigura P. Agriculture Transfer of Technology Approaches since Independence. India Journal of Extension Education. 1998;9: 2168-2176.

Umali DI, Schwartz L. Public and Private Agricultural Extension: Beyond Traditional Frontiers. World Bank Discussion Papers, No.236. Washington, D.C; 1994.

Oladele OI. Factors determining farmers' Willingness to Pay for Extension Services in Oyo State, Nigeria. Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica. 2008;41(l):165-170.

Bawa DB, Ani AO, Nuhu HS. Perception of Privatization and commercialization of agricultural extension services in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. 2009;l3(3):375-380.

Oladele OI, Obuh J. Perceived effect of privatization of extension services among researchers extension agents and farmers in Oyo State, Nigeria. Agricultural Journal. 2008;3(5): 409-413.

Oyewusi AO. Collaboration of scientists in agricultural research institute of Nigeria: Implication for privatization and commercialization of agricultural extension. Journal of Agricultural Extension (AESON). 2001;5(31).

Ogunlade 1, Adekunle OA, Akangbe JA. Perceived usefulness and potential of funding agricultural extension operation by Farmers, in Kwara State, Nigeria. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 2006;8(3):402-405.

Ozor N, Agwu AE, Chukwuone NA, Madukwe MC, Garforth CJ. Cost-sharing of agricultural technology transfer in Nigeria: Perceptions of farmers and extension professionals. The Journal of Education and Extension. 2008;13(1):23-37.

Ogunlade I, Oladele OI, Babatunde AO. Farmers’ attitude to beneficiary funding of extension services in Kwara State. Journal of Human Ecology. 2009;26(3):215-220.

Daniela JH, Smale M, Von Oppen M. Private Participation in agricultural extension in Nigeria and Benin: Determining the willingness to pay for information. Selected Paper Prepared for Presentation at the American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting, Providence, Rhode Island; 2005.

Okoruwa VO, Ogundele OO, Oyewusi BO. Efficiency and productivity of farmers in Nigeria: A study of rice farmers in North Central Nigeria. Position Paper Prepared for Presentation at the International Association of Agricultural Economists Conference, Gold Coast, Australia, 12-18 August, 2006; 2000.

Idiong IC. Estimation of farm level technical efficiency in small scale swamp rice production in Cross River State of Nigeria: A Stochastic Frontier Approach. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2007;3(5): 653-658.