Main Article Content
Low soil fertility is a major problem of growth and establishment of cacao seedlings, as well as the yield on the field. However, cacao (Theobroma cacao L) is characterized by high nutrient demand particularly N, P, K, Ca and Mg, during establishment. In this study, the manurial potentials of some organic wastes and their effects on growth, development and yield of cacao in Ibadan and Owena soils of Southwestern Nigeria were investigated. The experiments in Ibadan and Owena were Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 3 replicates. Fertilizers were: Goat Dung (GD), Sunshine Organic and Organo-Mineral Fertilizers (OF and OMF) and NPK 15:15:15 at 0, 200, 400 and 600 kg/ha. The fertilizers were applied to treatment plots one month after cacao seedlings were transplanted using ring method (July, 2011). Four hundred and thirty two (432) plantain suckers were planted at 3 x 3 m spacing as shade crop while 432 cacao seedlings (F3 Amazon) were also transplanted at 3 x 3 m respectively at each experimental site. Top soil samples were analysed with standard methodologies. Data were collected monthly on cacao growth parameters such as plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves and number of branches, commencing at 3 months after transplanting (MAT). The experiments were monitored for 36 months (144 weeks after planting of cacao). Survival count was carried out 12 MAT. Data collected were subjected to statistical analysis using Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and significant means were separated by Tukey’s HSD (P < 0.05) test. Cacao seedlings grown under 600 kg/ha OF application had 100 and 95 percent survival count at Ibadan and Owena respectively. All fertilizer types and rates at Ibadan and Owena significantly increased cacao seedlings height, number of leaves, stem diameter and number of branches, relative to the control plots at 3, 4, 5, 15, 16 and 17 MAT. Goat dung applied at 600 kg/ha gave the highest number of flowers, cherelles and pods at 24 and 36 MAT at Owena. However, there were no yield parameters recorded for Ibadan experiment at 24 and 36 MAT.
Opeke LK. Tropical tree crops, (Eds). Spetrum Books LTD. Ibadan, Nigeria. 2005;95-96.
Adejobi KB, Famaye AO, Adeniyi DO. Akanbi OSO and Orisajo SB; 2011a.
Ojeniyi SO. Nutrient requirements of cocoa in Nigeria (unpublished); 1981.
IFDC. International Fertilizer Development Centre, Annual Reports; 2008-2009.
Ogunlade MO, Iloyanomon CI. Leaf litter fall and soil nutrient status under cocoa plantation of different ages in Ibadan. Nigeria Journal of Soil Science. 2009;19(1):25-28.
Ayanlaja SA. Soil nutrient management research in the humid forest zone of Nigeria for cocoa production between 1940 and 2000 missing gaps. 17th WCSS. Tiland Symposium. 2002;16:1503.
Moyin-Jesu EI. Determination of soil nutrient levels of okra using sole and amended plant residues. Pertanika Joour. of Trop. Agric. 2008;3(2).
Michori N. Trends in coffee nutrition research in Kenya. Kenya Coffee. 1998;46(545):247-256.
Obatolu CR. Growth and nutrient uptake of coffee (Coffea spp) seedlings grown on different organic materials. Ph.D Thesis, University of Ibadan. 1991;276.
Fagbenro JA. Studies on the extraction of soil organic matter and the effect of humic acid on the growth of teak (Tectona grandis) seedlings. Ph.D Thesis University of Ibdan Nigeria; 1988.
Ipinmoroti RR, Adeoye GO. Effects of organic and NPK fertilizers on tea (Camellia sinensis) performance on a humid lowland ecological area of South western Nigeria. Proceeding of Horticultural Society of Nigeria Conference, Ibadan, Nigeria. 2002;69-74.
Ipinmoroti RR, Adeoye GO, Makinrinde EA, Okogun JO. Effect of urea and organic fertilizer as nitrogen sources for tea seedlings. Nigeria Journal of Soil Science. 2004;14:87-92.
Adeniran JA, Akande MO, Adeoye GO. Comparative effectiveness of organic; 1999.
Alabi DA, Odubeba Y. A preliminary study of the effect of two organic wastes and NPK (15:15:15) on the growth and yield of cowpea. Nigeria Journal Horticultural Science. 2001;5:19-27.
Kettler TA, Doran JW, Gilbert TL. Simplified method for soil particle-sise determination to accompany soil- quality. USDA Agricultral Research Service. Lincoln. Nebraka. 2001;849-852.
Zhang MH, Cederwall RT, Yio JJ, Xie SC, Lin JL. Objective analysis of ARM IOP Data; method and sensitivity. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Liver more California. 2001;295-311.
Murphy J, Riley JP. A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in water. Analytical Chemisry Act. 1962;9: 69-82.
Bray RH, Kurtz LT. Determination of total, organic and available form of phosphorus in soils. Soil Science. 1945;59:45-59.
A.O.A.C. Official methods of analysis 12th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemistry, Washington, D.C. USA; 1990.
Soil Survey Staff: Soil taxonomy. A basic system for soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys. USDA. Hand book, No. 436, Washington D.C; 1999.
Egbe NE, Ayodele EA, Obatolu CR. Soil and nutrition of cocoa , coffe, kola, cashew and tea. In Progress in Tree Crop Research in Nigeria. 2nd Ed. CRIN, Ibadan. 1989;27-38.
Agboola AA, Corey RB. The relationship between soil pH, organic matter, available P, exchangeable K, Calcium, magnesium and nine elements in the maize tissues. Soil Science. 1973;115:367-375.
Ogunwale JA, Olaniyan JO, Aduloju MO. Morphological, physico-chemical and clay mineralogical properties of soils overlaying basement complex rocks in Ilorin East, Nigeria. Moor Journal of Agricultural Research. 2002;3(2):147-154.
Agboola AA, Omueti JAI. Soil fertility problems and its management in tropical Africa. In: International Conference on Land Clearing and Development. Procee-dings: IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria. 1982;2.
Agboola AA, Obigbesan GO. Inter-relations between organic and mineral fertilizer in tropical rainforest of Western Nigeria. In: Oganic materials as fertilizers. FAO, Rome; 1975.
Wessel M. Soil aspects of cacao rehabilitation in Nigeria. Proceedings of 3rd International Cocoa Research Conference. Accra, Ghana. 1969;81–5.
Adeoye KB. Long-term effects of dung on the physical properties of loamy sand Savanna soil of Northern Nigeria. Paper Presented at the 16th Annual Conference of the Soil Science Society of Nigeria, Minna. 1988;13.
Adeniyan ON, Ojeniyi SO. Effects of poultry manure and NPK 15-15-15 and combination of their reduced level on maize growth and soil chemical composition. Nigerian Journal of Soil Science. 2005;15:34-41.
Moyin-Jesu EI. Effects of some organic fertilizer on soil and coffee (Coffee arabica L), leaf chemical composition and growth. University of Khartoun Jour. of Agric. Sci. 2007;15(1):52-70.
Lombin G. Approximating the potassium fertilization requirement of cotton on some representative semi-arid tropical savannah soils of Nigeria. Canadian Journal of Soil Science. 1981;61:507-516.
Agboola AA, Omueti JAI, Titiloye O. Chemical composition of industrial and agricultural waste products contaminating water resources. Proceedings of 2nd National Conference on Water Polution, P 198-210. Fixation and Organic Matter in the Tropic. 12th Int. Soil Cong. Sysposium. 1981;198-202.
Titiloye EO, Agboola AA, Lucas EO. Evaluation of fertilizer values of organic waste materials in south western Nigeria. Ecological Agricultural and Horticulture. 1985;3:25-37.
Solomon MG, Ogeh JO. Use of some leguminous plants and rice husks as fertilizer materials. African Soils. 1995;28: 327–332.
Murray DB. A shade and fertilizer experiment with cocoa. Progress Report – Continued. Rep. Cacao Res. 1952, Trinidad. 1955;11–21.
Adeyeye EI, Ayejuyo OO. Chemical composition of cola acuminate and Garcinia kola seeds grown in Nigeria. International Journal Food Science and Nutrition. 1994;45:223-230.
Armando U, Hernando M, Jairo M. Effect of balanced fertilization on cocoa yield. Better Crop International. 2001;15:2.